Energy Medicine, Uncategorized

GenoType

 

Tall, thin, and intense, with an overabundance of adrenaline and a fierce, nervous energy that winds down with age, the Hunter was originally the success story of the human species. Vulnerable to systemic burnout when overstressed, the Hunter’s modern challenge is to conserve energy for the long haul.

If modern humans originated in East Africa, there can be no doubt that their initial migrations took them to Asia. And, as I imply in the prior section, this probably took place in fugue-like fashion as one group set out, to be followed by another, and another. We know this migration was quite ancient, since remains of Homo erectus, who were probably ancestral to modern humans, have been found as far as Pakistan and China.

There was a significant warm interglacial period between 100,000 and 150,000 years ago and a greener Sahara allowed humans living in Ethiopia and the southern Sudan to travel north across an otherwise impenetrable Sahara and Sinai Peninsula. However there was again another sudden freezing of the world’s climates about 90,000 years ago, and this saw the return of desert conditions to the Middle East with the loss of major game.

The migration from the Middle East into Europe – the presumed route by those early Homo sapiens- would have looked very different than a similar voyage embarked upon nowadays. They would have had to pass through a belt of extreme arid semi-desert conditions that extended from North Africa almost to the foothills of Armenia in the Caucuses. From there they would have encountered an almost endless expanse of dreary tundra, interrupted solely by dense stands of boreal forest in the Carpathian basin (modern day Hungary) and the headwaters of the Danube, around present day Austria.

These forests would continue to grow and spread out over Western Europe, making it difficult for the larger land animals, which were voracious herbivores, to survive. In their ultimately failed attempts to do so, these large mammals began to migrate east with the shrinking tundra forcing upon these early Homo sapiens one of two choices: Stay put or keep moving west and come to terms with the encroaching forest, or move eastward with the large mammals. Those who stayed became the hunter-gatherers of the forests and fishers of the numerous rivers, bays, and shallow waters connected to the seas of Europe. Those who moved east hunted out the last of wild big game and turned their best efforts into learning to herd what was left.

Heading further north, the tundra would have extended to about the area of modern day Denmark; since it is only there that we find the remains of Scandinavian ice-age animals older than 13,000 BCE. A large part of what is today the North Sea was dry land connecting Denmark with Britain, and the earliest inhabitants of The British Isles almost certainly walked there.

If instead Hunter turned south, to what is now Greece, Southern Italy, all the large Mediterranean islands, and the coastal areas of Turkey and Spain, the vegetation would resemble a semi-desert steppe with scattered pockets of trees in the moist areas: it was certainly a more wooded landscape than we would find taking a similar trip there today, as all these areas have been extensively deforested over the last two thousand years.

In North America, the dominant feature was the presence of a vast ice sheet almost completely covering Canada. Forest dominated the eastern USA, but it was more open in character and contained trees adapted to the cooler climates.

In the Cordillera region of the western USA, the areas below 500 meters altitude were semi-desert and scrub from 500 meters up to 1500 meters. This was also true for the whole Sonoran Desert area to the south and covering Texas and northern Mexico.

South America was slightly cooler and generally drier than at present. It appears that the Amazonian rainforest was substantially reduced in area (though large uncertainties remain). The Atlantic forest of Brazil was also much diminished. Some desert and semi-desert areas formed in what are presently grassland and scrub zones.

The human habitation of the Americans began about 15,000 years ago although some archeologists place it as far back as 30,000 years ago. These early colonists almost certainly crossed the Beringia land bridge, which existed between Siberia and Alaska at that time of the Last Glacial Maximum. Linguistic evidence seems to indicate that they came in several waves.

The Americas had an almost complete extinction of large mammals by the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th century, so much so that their horses were a source of amazement and fright. It has been argued that the extinction of large game was a consequence of the terrific hunting skills possessed by these migrating Asian hunters, but other evidence points to changes in the vegetation at the end of the last glacial period.

Originally forest hunters advancing and retreating along the outskirts of the boreal and tropical woodlands with each change in climate, Hunter GenoTypes are acutely tuned and flexible in their reactions, which perhaps explains why as a human technology they have been so historically successful – and why they continue to adapt to new conditions and challenges.

Hunter Genotype is one of the true success stories in our history as a species. They are highly charged, kinetic people with a constant need for a physical outlet – human electrons, if you will. When in shape, they are capable of prodigious physical effort and as such make for some of the best, most ‘natural’ athletes to be found in sports. If you need a quick metaphor for the Hunter metabolism, just think of those turn of the century steamships with their glowing coal furnaces buried deep down inside of the hull of the ship. Yet like the heart of a thoroughbred racer, they run and run, often until their heart bursts.

Tall, thin, and intense, with an overabundance of adrenaline and a fierce, nervous energy that winds down with age, the Hunter was originally the success story of the human species. Vulnerable to systemic burnout when overstressed, the Hunter’s modern challenge is to conserve energy for the long haul.

The Hunter Genodynamic is reactive, adversarial, and opportunistic – basically a phenomenal combination for survival.

Physical Profile

Typically, Hunters are long-legged, with lower legs longer than upper legs and total leg length greater than torso length. They are often lean and long (classic ectomorphs, really) but also can range to meso-ectomorphic as well, with perhaps the distinguishing feature being the fact that meso-ectomorphic Hunters tend to have denser bones but a smaller frame size. Caucasian Hunters almost always broad-headed and often have lighter hued hair; not necessarily blonde, but a broad spectrum of lighter hues of brown. In Africans, Hunters tend to have a Capoid facial structure, with a nasal index that points to a narrower nasal ridge. Biometrically, Hunters almost always have at least one hand that is testosterogenic (ring finger longer than index finger) and many, especially men, have both hands symmetrical for this. This feature and all that growth factor activity in early life are what make Hunters the natural athletes they are.

Because they typically function at such a high level of output, the Hunter rarely sickens in an over-energetic fashion, rather more likely rapidly falling into one of any types of exhaustive states. In these circumstances they can have problems regulating their blood sugar, especially if they are reconditioned from a history of sedentary behavior. Earlier in life, with all their resources at peak function, Hunters can develop a sort of free floating anxiety, occasioned by difficulties in their ability to clear adrenaline effectively from their bodies. These higher levels of adrenaline can often compromise their appetite and appreciation for the texture and flavor of food, and it is not uncommon for Hunters to complain during adolescence and early adulthood that they have difficulty keeping their weight up.

Metabolic Profile

At their best, Hunters have an absolutely superb metabolism – perhaps the best of the six GenoTypes. They have a positive genius for converting calories into the perfect combination of muscle, bone, and fat, and their physiques are primed for optimal use of their lean athletic limbs and long, strong backs. If you’re a Hunter you might think of yourself as a top-of-the-line sports car that burns high-octane fuel – and then ask yourself what happens to that Porsche if it gets poor-quality gasoline or isn’t driven at the top speeds it was designed for.

In their book, The Fetal Matrix, Gluckman and Hanson make a strong point that our early Paleolithic hunter-gatherer ancestors may have done a better job of ‘getting it right.’ These so called happy Paleo people no doubt inhabited a world fraught with difficulties, but the hunter gatherer diet, with its reliance on animal protein, would certainly have provided a continuous source of nutrients to their diet even if it was intermittent and sporadic. Other methods of complimenting the diet, such a foraging and perhaps even some light, subsistence agriculture, would have completed what even by our standards of today could be considered a fairly wholesome diet. Since the diet of these individuals was largely in keeping with what would have been anticipated from generation to generation, there really would not have been much of a ‘disconnect’ between the generations; in other words, what would have been predicted by environmental conditions and programmed in the womb would have been fairly close to what would have been encountered in life; and indeed, evidence would suggest that these people were fairly healthy.

Subsequent to this so called ‘Happy Paleo Period’ there appeared to be a long process of adjustment to the later Neolithic type existence with its emphasis on a less migratory, more settled existence and increasing reliance on subsistence agricultural and simple animal domestication. These must not have been easy times; the diet would probably have been lacking in some important components. As mentioned earlier from ‘Happy Paleo’ to subsistence Neolithic may have been the germ of an idea that was later encapsulated in the Bible as the tale of the expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Of course, no one argues that the effects of agriculture and animal husbandry have gone on to do nothing less than revolutionize the human experience. We and our offspring at least for the foreseeable future live in the so called ‘age of plenty,’ characterized by phenomenally productive agricultural abundance.

Of course, this has also gone on to become the root of many of our health problems, and one bill that does remain to be paid involves the effects of the thrifty phenotype, developed over the course of many generations in countries like China and India which have experienced a long history of subsistence agriculture, famine, and food shortages. The million dollar question remains: what will happen to these populations, as increasing affluence and the high calorie western diet meets generations of thrifty phenotype programming? The implications are chilling if you are willing to admit that we in the west are currently undergoing our own epidemic of diabetes and obesity and cardiovascular disease, for if that is the case, the sheer numbers of possible cases of these very same problems worldwide and their resistance to cost-effective treatment does not bode well for the future.

No surprise, Hunter possesses a truly amazing set of predictives for hunter-gathering. However unlike several of the other reactive/thrifty genotypes, Hunter is moderately well-adapted to the present day set of environmental conditions as well. Perhaps this is the result of a long tradition of superlative maternal effects due to the genotype possessing many of the requirements for optimum nurturing: High gestational levels of oxygen, insulin and growth factors, often the result of the mother being a Hunter as well, and being perhaps a bit more inclined towards a high protein diet.

Hunter dermatoglyphics (fingerprint patterns occurrence and distribution) show no strong associations, suggesting that this genotype is a product of vigorous and effective prenatal gestational processes, which is a reflection of their lack of thriftiness and ability to burn through calories at a prodigious rate. If you haven’t been eating right for your GenoType, you’ll probably have done some damage to the lining of your digestive tract and having worn fingerprints with lots of white lines will let you know that’s the case.

In other words, when you can make a decent fingerprint, you can make a decent lining for your gut as well. Perhaps no surprise, white lines have been linked to celiac disease, a condition of gluten sensitivity.

Ancestry and Variants 

Hunters often have variations (polymorphisms) in several of the common nutritionally significant genes. These polymorphisms fall into two very general categories: pro-inflammatory genes and genes which indirectly modules inflammation due to their ability to activate anti-oxidants:

Proinflammatory and antioxidant gene polymorphisms are common to Hunter.

  • Il-6: This gene codes for interleukin 6, a hormone (cytokine) of the immune system
  • TNF-a: This gene codes for tumor necrosis factor a cytokine that plays a role in maintain bone health and controlling inflammation
  • SOD3: This gene codes for superoxide dismutase an enzyme that is used as an antioxidant and for cardiovascular health.
  • MnSOD This gene codes for manganese superoxide dismutase, a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a key role in protecting the cell from oxidative damage.

DNA Y-Chromosome Analysis

Both the Western (R1b) and Eastern (R1a) Eurasian haplogroups are observed, although R1b is by far the more common. Haplogroup I is especially interesting since it may trace some of the Hunter GenoType migrations in response to the movement of the most recent glaciers, a point at which the Hunter and Explorer GenoTypes may have been one and the same.

DNA Mitochondrial Chromosome Analysis

Mitochondrial DNA tends to peg Hunter with the few ancient haplogroups and some of the more recent mutations. Most Hunters of African descent are part of the L2 haplogroup. Hunter is one of the few haplogroups that contains all three of the less common descendants of N: Groups I, W and X. Haplogroup I may have been among the very first to colonize Europe.

Other Western Haplogroups seen in Hunter are U and K. Haplogroup U is believed to have risen somewhere in Europe or the Near East approximately 55,000 years before present. Haplogroup K is a mostly Eurasian haplotype, and is believed to have first appeared when human populations expanded through Europe after the last glacial maximum in 16,000 BC. Mitochondrial H haplogroup is very common in European Hunters, but is also very common in other European genotypes as well. Mitochondrial haplogroup B may be an especially strong indicator in Hispanics and Polynesians.

Stress Profile 

The organs that govern our stress response are the adrenal and pituitary glands, and, not surprisingly, these are vulnerable areas for most Hunters. Well-functioning Hunters run on a healthy adrenaline high with short, sustained bursts of energy that members of other GenoTypes often find astonishing. But good adrenal function requires down time – periods when adrenaline is discharged through satisfying physical exertion and when the mind returns to a place of calm. Hunters in our modern world, with its perpetual deadlines and sedentary life, are all too prone to adrenal burnout, the sad condition that results from excess adrenaline production and insufficient stress release.

Hunters can also have difficulty properly adjusting what physiologists call the ‘HPA Axis’ the series of connections between the adrenal gland and the pituitary and hypothalamus glands in the brain. The HPA Axis is responsible for regularizing and normalizing the adaptive stress response, sometimes called the ‘fight or flight’ reflex. Probably as a result of their optimization for hunter-gathering with all its attendant risks and needs for present-time consciousness Hunters would seem to wear a path out in the rug between their pituitary and adrenal glands. Adrenal glands vary in weight from 7 to 20 grams in normal adults while the thickness of the gland varied almost tenfold among individuals, and you can bet that Hunters are at the top of the scale.

In the 1960’s Henry Bieler, a medical doctor wrote a book called Food Is Your Best Medicine. In it he described what he called ‘Glandular Types’ – differences among people that are the result of one glandular system acting pre-eminently over the others. Hunters would likely classify as ‘Pituitary Dominant’ in Bieler’s system; he describes the type as suffering from weak adrenal function, having tall stature and a somewhat moody and perfectionist mental outlook. This is way too broad of a brushstroke: Hunters display what more likely seems a highly developed mechanical aptitude rather than any moody perfectionism.

An interesting feature of Hunter is that they almost always seem to be hungry, yet often fill up quickly, with just a few bites of this or a sip of that. A half hour later, it starts all over again. If you watch a few Hunters, you can begin to see that this GenoType is hungry on a lot of levels; they love to tinker with stuff and enjoy learning new things. However, like their appetite, they often zoom right past it all in a desire to get to the end, or bottom, of things. Before long, they’re on to something else.

Aging Profile 

Because of their reactive and inflammatory tendencies, Hunters can age rapidly. Keeping a healthy dietary supply of proper gene promoting factors such as the B vitamin Folic Acid is especially critical for optimizing gene methylation (the process of maintaining DNA integrity during replication). Because of their exposure to the various growth factors in early life, which can increase risks for certain cancers, this is especially important to consider when supplementing. Often the buildup of combinations of antigens and antibodies that come out of solution in the blood and deposit in the tissues, called immune complexes, can lead to autoimmune problems with the joints, kidneys and skin.

Immune Profile 

Hunters are prone to inflammation – the heat, redness, swelling, and pain that result when the body fights off what it perceives as a dangerous invader. In many cases, the cure is worse than the disease, since inflammation contributes to numerous health problems, including arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Inflammation may also contribute to obesity, so hyper-reactive Hunters’ price for not following their ideal diet is to, well, need a diet! As you can see, an over-reactive immune system is the powerful Hunter’s Achilles heel, so the GenoType 1 Hunter diet is designed to get that immune system back in balance and damp down its hair-trigger responses when they’re not really needed.

Hunter has a somewhat hostile bent, and this can be tremendously amplified if they are forced to derive intrauterine nourishment from a mother who is consuming an inadequate amount of dietary fat or who is blood group A. The female Hunter is a very effective genotype, with some wonderful predictives behind her. Curiously, the spectrum of cancers that Hunters appear prone to seem to impact men a bit more than women, especially those that involve hormone activation and the organs of reproduction. In essence Hunter women are a bit more prone to malignancy, but it is not malignancy that involves the breast, uterus or ovaries – the reproductive organs. Male Hunters on the other hand do seem to have their fair share of prostate cancer.

The high water mark of hunter-gathering is often called the Mesolithic period (‘Middle Stone Age’) which began around 10,000 years ago and ended with the introduction of farming. The onset of farming differed from place to place, starting early in the Near East and much later in Europe. Hunter-gatherer technology reached its apex during the Mesolithic era; fishing tackle, stone adzes, canoes and bows have all been found preserved at various sites.

Popular culture tends to depict our Stone Age ancestors as crude, simplistic animals perpetually at the point of starvation. “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” as Thomas Hobbes had put it in 1651. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Though small in number, Paleolithic hunter-gatherers worked far fewer hours and enjoyed more leisure than typical members of industrial society, and they still ate well, satisfied with very little in the material sense. The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture was not necessarily a one way process, and evidence seems to disprove any notion that hunter-gatherers were saved from extinction by the advent of farming technology. They seem to have been familiar with farming practices when it arose, but for the longest time simply rejected it or used it as a marginal supplement to the diet.

As these late hunter-gatherer societies evolved, they began to develop specializations such as fishing and seafood collection, harvesting nuts and fruits, or trapping small animals. They often had simple forms of representative government, based around family or clan.

Perhaps it is not coincidental that the story of the Garden of Eden in the Bible shares some of the same elements in its storyline. Some anthropologists have hypothesized that the Garden of Eden does not represent a geographical place, but rather represents cultural memory of the simpler times of hunter-gathering, when man lived off God’s bounty, as opposed to being civilized and toiling at agriculture.

Functional Aesthetic

Because they typically function at such a high level of output, Hunter rarely sickens in an over-energetic fashion, rather more likely rapidly falling into one of any types of exhaustive states. In these circumstances they can have problems regulating their blood sugar, especially if they are reconditioned from a history of sedentary behavior. Earlier in life, with all their resources at peak function Hunter can develop a sort of free floating anxiety, occasioned by difficulties in their ability to clear adrenaline effectively from their bodies. These higher levels of adrenaline can often compromise their appetite and appreciation for the texture and flavor of food, and it is not uncommon for Hunters to complain during adolescence and early adulthood that they have difficulty keeping their weight up. If not effectively dealt with, this could easily devolve into anorexia and its associated eating disorders – a major problem with Hunter, since the muscle loss that occurs as a result of this difficult period can almost never be replenished.

Overcompensation was at one time a very effective survival strategy in the pre-antibiotic, pre-vaccination days, but in our modern society with its abundance of new man-made, xenobiotic chemicals, this type of reaction norm is as exhausting as it is unprofitable. An exhausting it is: as Hunters age, their immune function can drop precipitously, which along with their tendencies to longer lower leg length and its implications with regard to childhood exposure to high levels of growth factors, goes a long way to explain their surprisingly higher rates of malignancy. It’s also likely that this tendency to malignancy is a result of epigenetic programming that needed to anticipate maximum energy, fertility and strength during the 20’s and early 30’s but did not anticipate effectively the effects of the ongoing and steady increases in lifespan that have occurred in the last several centuries.

The Hunter diet could be described as ‘Pure Paleo’ but that would not give this GenoType adequate credit for the marvelous efficiencies by which they approach and react to environmental challenges. By and large, if they can poke it with a sharp stick, it’s pretty much fair game for Hunter, though there is a difference between their predictive goals – which are to survive long enough to reproduce – and what most of us really want – the ability to survive a bit longer than that. In order to accomplish that, Hunter must optimize their production of kinetic energy, temper and balance their stress axis, and strive to control tendencies towards runaway inflammation and pre-mature aging.

GenoType 2 The Gatherer 

Full-figured, even when not overweight, the Gatherer struggles with body image in a culture where thin is “in.” An unsuccessful crash dieter with a host of metabolic challenges, the Gatherer becomes a glowing example of health when properly nourished.

If you could possibly even imagine it, Africa 20,000 years ago was drier than it is today. However, by about 13,000 years ago, this began to change; the world became warmer and moister, creating large belts of Savanna-like grasslands where once and future sand dunes would predominate. Then it changed again. Creeping cold from the north again made the desert more arid and similar to the present, as the great northern glaciers sucked up and froze all the available water.

Gatherers often skirted wastelands and deserts. The GenoType stretches along a broad continuum of landforms, a sort of ‘Junction GenoType,’ connecting the variations of a number of gene systems to changes in rainfall and temperature. This is what makes Gatherer so efficient and thrifty; they are able to survive the lean and sparse interregnums between migration and relocation. Because of this phenomenal adaptability Gatherer cuts a wide swath across ethnic and geographic distinctions, connecting diverse groups together via two basic reaction norms: a marked ability to survive famine, and outside of that environment, a tendency to gain weight gradually throughout their lifespan.

These temperate regions are usually semi-arid, with a wet and dry season. The soils are quite fertile with rich nutrients, and the plentiful grasses are natural attractants for grazing animals and birds. However, these regions are climatically rather schizoid with burning days followed by freezing nights, blazing hot summer and freezing winters, inundations of rain and flooding followed by drought, and long periods of peace and tranquility followed by new migrations. Like the coiling of a great metal spring, each installment of abundance and scarcity would program the need for survival and thriftiness even further.

The combined influences of nature and nurture give Gatherers a complex psychological profile. Let’s face it, our attitudes are formed in large part by social feedback, and in Western cultures there has been a reversal of fortune for Gatherers. One hundred years ago, even industrialized societies revered voluptuous women and portly men as symbols of affluence and fertility. Today the opposite is true. Being slender is viewed as a sign of success and affluence.

Gatherers carried humanity on their backs during times of famine and scarcity. They are Nature’s ultimate survival strategy. Vulnerable to conserving calories as stored fat, the Gatherers’ modern challenge is to fit their survival programming to the realities of today’s overabundance of fats and sugar.

Physical Profile

Gatherers are not usually very tall, and their lower legs are shorter than their upper legs. Thrifty genes tend to inhibit the activity of insulin-like growth factors, both in utero and in early childhood. Growth factors are molecules that are involved in many key aspects of development. Among their many functions, these growth factors cause the elongation of lower leg bones, and Gatherer’s typically shorter lower legs are a sign of their inhibition.

The lower leg extremity space is typically smallish and closed, usually a sure sign of a cynic endomorph. Gatherers often have very wide genial angles, which tend to give the women an oval like appearance to the face. This, in combination with their voluptuous body shape, often makes for stunningly beautiful people. Not surprisingly, in the days before our current fat phobia, these women would have been viewed as highly fit and desirable, most likely since they possessed above average fertility and could survive in a host of potentially life threatening environments.

Gatherers are endomorphic to endo-mesomorphic somatotypes, which is not that same as saying that they are fat or obese. Endomorphic types have a greater percentage of endoderm tissues, the germ layer that goes on during fetal development to produce the thyroid, the lining of the whole of the digestive tract, the lining of all the glands, which open into the digestive tube, including those of the liver, pancreas, and the follicles of the thyroid gland. Endomorphs can easily become overweight, but being an endomorph in itself is not a state of obesity. Endomorphs often have soft and round body types, but that does not always mean that they are obese. Anyone can become fat – even an ectomorph, a somatotype most often thought of as long and skinny.

A good distinction between the Hunter and Gatherer GenoTypes for type O and the Gatherer and Nomad GenoTypes for type B is the absence of shovel-shaped incisors in the Gatherer. Many Nomads and Hunters have shovel-shaped incisors, which just means that the back of the four front teeth are scooped out a bit, like a teaspoon. You can usually feel this with your tongue or your finger. From the back, shovel-shaped incisors display enhanced side ridges and present with a distinctive shovel-shaped appearance on the side that faces backwards towards the tongue. On the other hand, all hunter-gatherers do not necessarily have well-developed shoveling. However, among hunter-gatherers there is a variation from vegetarian to meat-eating that corresponds gradual change of climatic zones from the tropical to the polar regions. The main foods of northern hunter-gatherers were animals, those of the hunter-gatherers living in the tropical islands of Southeast Asia or the like were vegetables, the latter seeming to be typical of the oldest stage in the evolution of human food habits.

An addition discriminator between Gatherer and both the Hunter and Nomad GenoTypes is the PROP taster polymorphism. Most Gatherers have a hard time tasting PROP, whereas most Hunters and Nomads either taste PROP to actually ‘super-taste’ it. It has been noticed that the results for the tasting gene parallel in general what has already been observed for the Rh negative and A2 genes, that is, that the European populations tend to differ rather strikingly from Asiatic populations. In both cases there is insufficient information about Africans.

Gatherers are typically ‘cynic,’ exhibiting tendencies associated with above average estrogenic stimulation in the womb. Gatherers almost always have long index fingers compared to ring fingers, indicating high levels of estrogen in the womb. Other signs of estrogenic influence are the narrow interior space between the legs, and a wider, rounder jaw angle. Asymmetry is another characteristic of the Gatherer. These often show up by one hand having different fingerprint and palm patterns than the other. In particular, Gatherer women tend to have visible differences in the size of their breasts. The index fingers are typically longer that the ring fingers in most Gatherers.

Gatherer is closest to what is called Kapha in the Ayurveda system of body classification. People with the Kapha constitution have a strong tendency to have regular appetites and carry excess weight. Their chests are expanded and broad. The veins and tendons of Kapha people are not obvious because of their thick skin. Kapha often have good complexions with soft, lustrous skin. Their hair is often thick, dark, soft and wavy. Their eyes are very intense, the white of the eye generally very white. Psychologically, they tend to be tolerant, calm, forgiving and loving. Their comprehension is consistent and deep; once they understand something, that knowledge is retained.

In early childhood the Gatherer surprisingly tends towards scrawniness and smaller than average birth weight, unlike the other thrifty GenoType, Warrior, who are usually having the best years of their life at this point. In the case of Gatherer, the thrifty genes assert themselves almost immediately after growth ceases, at which time their weight gain can be breathtakingly rapid.

Ancestry

DNA Y-Chromosome Analysis:

Gatherer can trace lineage back to the African A and B macrohaplogroups– haplogroup A in particular. B haplogroup is found sub-Saharan Africa, especially to tropical forests of West-Central Africa. It contains the C and F macrohaplogroups, which represent its ‘Out of Africa’ component, haplogroup C perhaps signifying broad coastal migrations. Like Mu, Tau has contains both haplogroups (D and E) with the YAP polymorphism, although the E haplogroup is by far the more significant, especially its descendant E3a, a very common haplogroup in African Gatherer genotypes. E3a is thought to be associated with the group that spread agriculture across the central and southern parts of Africa during the last 3000 years. The Bantu culture appears to have been the agent of the spread of this agricultural revolution. Another haplogroup variant of Gatherer genotype is Y DNA haplogroup I, which is found in Europeans and represents a northern variant of the thrifty adaptation, these individuals skirting glacial encroachment instead of the southern Gatherer varieties who more likely were being uprooted by desertification. Also related to Haplogroup I is Haplogroup J, often seen in Gatherer GenoTypes located in Mesopotamia. Tau also shares the K macrohaplogroup lineage with many other genotypes, and contains both variants of it most numerous endpoint: Haplogroup R1a in Northern and Eastern Europeans and Haplogroup R1b in Western and Southern Europeans.

DNA Mitochondrial Chromosome Analysis:

Gatherer tends to be all over the place when one looks at Ancestral MTDNA analysis. Perhaps no surprise, it’s found in many of the ancestral haplogroups that go on spawn other haplogroups; for example, Gatherer is one of the few GenoTypes (Teacher is another) that appears to link back to all the M, N and R mtDNA macrohaplogroups. In Africa, the L haplogroups (L1, L2, L3) make up almost 100% of all Gatherer GenoTypes, with L2 being quite common in African Americans. Haplogroup M and descendants are found in Eurasia. Its main descendant in Gatherer is Haplogroup C, found in many New World populations and D, found along the Asian coastal rim. The major descendants of macrohaplogroup N are found in Europeans; Haplogroups Pre-HV, H and V are commonly seen, all of which probably represent Mesolithic transitions from hunter-gathering to other types of subsistence existence.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

These gene polymorphisms may be of special interest:

  • LPL: Polymorphisms of this gene are linked to many disorders of lipoprotein metabolism.
  • PPAR: This gene may be involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. It may also have a role in insuring proper memory function. Tau should give special attention to running a test on this SNP if their fingerprint ulnar loop count is eight or above.
  • ACE: This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance.
  • APOC3: This gene codes for Apolipoprotein C-III, a very low density lipoprotein protein. APOC3 inhibits lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase; it is thought to delay catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles. This may play an important role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Metabolic and Aging Profile

The Gatherer’s metabolic thriftiness, such a survival asset in ancient times of scarcity, comes with a price to pay. It doesn’t fit the lifestyle of the modern industrialized world, with its amply and inexpensively available carbohydrates and fats. The vast majority of these excess carbohydrates and fats will be taken out of the bloodstream and stored, typically as triglycerides and glycerol, a type of anti-freeze. However, Gatherers are usually so good at taking sugar out of the bloodstream and storing it that they essentially spend most of their time a permanent state of hypoglycemia. Thus they suffer on two accounts: first, the energy sources are stored instead of burnt, resulting in weight gain, and second, they don’t get the ‘reward’ of having consumed these nutrients because they are removed so efficiently from the blood stream that the brain and muscle tissue fails to get their fair share.

This eventually fractures the relationship between food and appetite to the point that Gatherer begins to eat simply to feel better rather than as any result of hunger signaling. The effects are chronic and serious. Gatherers can easily develop disturbances of their carbohydrate regulation and insulin sensitivity resulting in metabolic syndrome X and ‘diabesity.’ It is a slippery sloop from there leading to artery disease, kidney disease, and premature aging.

Both aging and metabolism for the Gatherer center around what are called the Advanced Glycation Endproducts, conveniently abbreviated AGEs. Strangely enough, a cooking metaphor may well be useful here. How often do you hear a television chef claim to be caramelizing onions? Well, if truth be told, they are not really caramelizing the food, but rather performing what chemists call a ‘Maillard Reaction,’ which is the result of a process called glycation. Glycation occurs when a sugar molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonds to a protein or fat without the controlling action of an enzyme.

Because there is no controlling enzyme, glycation is often rather haphazard, and glycated proteins and their end products (AGEs) produce 50-fold more toxic free radicals than proteins which are not glycated. As a result of this, AGEs exert a slew of very bad effects in the body. For example, AGEs induced free radicals activate the tendency to make the immune system go a bit crazy, increasing inflammatory diseases of the joints, plaque in the arteries, and degeneration of the central nervous system. If you have ever tried to remove burnt sugar from a casserole pan, you’ll appreciate just how difficult it is to get rid of these AGEs. They are eliminated from the body only very slowly; The half-life of a glycation end product within the body is about double the average cell life. Basically as we age, our cells and tissues accumulate burnt-sugar proteins on their surface, which cuts down on their ability to function and makes the immune system start attacking the tissues that contain them. The results are the common disease of aging: diabetes, artery disease, Alzheimer’s, joint degeneration and whatnot. Fortunately, as we’ll discover, there are measures you can adopt along with The GenoType Gatherer Diet to help eliminate these AGEs.

The key to successful Gatherer dieting is to lower the fructose content of an otherwise low glycemic diet. Fructose is often recommended for diabetics due to its glycemic index being significantly lower than both glucose, sucrose and starches. However excess fructose consumption has been hypothesized to possibly cause insulin resistance, obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to metabolic syndrome. A number of reports correlate fructose consumption with obesity, especially central obesity which is generally regarded as the most dangerous type. Unlike glucose, fructose is almost entirely metabolized in the liver. When fructose reaches the liver essentially shuts down all other processes in order to metabolize the fructose.

The spontaneous addition of single sugar molecules, such as fructose to proteins, known as is a strong stimulus to tissue glycation and AGE formation, and is a significant cause of damage in diabetics. Fructose appears to be as dangerous as glucose in this regard and so does not seem to be a better answer for diabetes for this reason alone. This may be an important contribution to senescence and many age-related chronic diseases.

Most fructose is consumed as high fructose corn syrup, which is corn syrup (glucose) that has been enzymatically treated by the enzyme glucose isomerase. This enzyme converts a portion of the glucose into fructose thus making it sweeter. This is done to such a degree as to yield corn syrup with an equivalent sweetness to sucrose by weight. High fructose corn syrup should be avoided by all Gatherer GenoTypes.

Perhaps the discovery that has best captured the imagination of the media is the possible link between caloric restriction (CR) and increased lifespan. CR has been shown to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. Some consider these to be biomarkers of aging, as related diseases are more frequent with increasing age. CR has been shown to be effective in several species of animals, including primates, rats, worms and spiders, although it has also been shown to be ineffective for others such as the housefly. CR must actually be more that just low calorie to work; Energy intake must be minimized, but sufficient quantities of vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients must still be ingested.

Calorie restriction is probably not a great course of action for Gatherers since it subjects their organs to a lot of stress and most Gatherers will not be happy with the results of calorie restriction on their physical appearance; these types of stressful diet often leaving them haggard and unhealthy.

This GenoType ages moderately well, especially if they manage to keep their metabolic requirements met without the intake of unnecessary or otherwise harmful glycating calories.

AGEs have been implicated in atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis, and Alzheimer’s. Increased levels of AGE molecules also creates inflammation, as well as the universal symptoms of aging: reduced organ function, weakened lungs, compromised blood vessels, general reduction in blood flow, and a loss of collagen under the skin, a.k.a. wrinkles.

Because Gatherers are so good at storing fat, they can be more at risk of accumulating of man-made chemicals called xenobiotics – a term that literally means ‘foreign to life.’ Virtually all man-made chemicals are xenobiotic. Principal xenobiotics include drugs, carcinogens and various compounds that have been introduced into the environment by artificial means, such as pesticides, fertilizers and hydrocarbons. Periodic detoxification is a great way to prevent these complications from developing.

Gatherers are typically blood type O, although a few type B’s are also Gatherers. Virtually all Africans with blood type B are Gatherers, as are type Bs of other ethnicities who are non-secretors. Almost all type B Gatherers are ‘fast acetylators.’ In the Type 2 diabetic patients an association between the fast acetylator phenotype and the B blood group is fairly well-known.

Immune Profile 

Gatherers typically have strong immune systems. However, there are specific weaknesses which should be addressed. Because of the extra-estrogenic activity during fetal development, there are slightly greater odds of problems with the reproductive organs, especially estrogen-dependent cancers. When they do strike, reproductive cancers tend to afflict Gatherer women earlier in life.

We’ve all seen GT2 Gatherers on weight-loss programs. Just think of any person you knew both before and after a period of extreme weight loss. Those who looked the worst and felt the most miserable after dropping all of that weight were Gatherers, especially those who developed puffy darkened bags under their eyes as a bonus to go with their newly svelte figures.

Functional Aesthetic

It would not be too difficult to conjure present day circumstances that could activate the GT2 thrifty survival mechanisms. Just think of any difference between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’. And it is not just about what you are eating; it’s also about what your mother and grandmother ate and how they conducted themselves. Obesity is one of those genetic traits which can be passed on as epigenetic inheritance; thrifty genes with the volume control set on overdrive.

I’m sure that cigarette smoking or drinking during pregnancy turns on Gatherer thrifty genes in the offspring; they’re just different types of fetal stress. Any difference in health care, living standards and education between the more affluent portions of modern industrialized nations and those less fortunate would qualify. Even in the wealthier, more cosmopolitan West, young girls are given media role models who are thin to the point of anorexia, and are taught to take pride in ‘not gaining too much weight’ when they become pregnant. The price we as a society are paying for producing thrifty children, environmentally or artificially, is our current epidemic of obesity and diabetes, or what some scientists call ‘diabesity’.

To understand this we must first realize that the Gatherer’s great thriftiness comes with a major metabolic price to be paid. As they scavenge and store every bit of carbohydrate and simple sugar that comes their way, two characteristics unfold. The first is that the vast majority of those carbohydrates will be stored, typically as triglycerides and glycerol, a type of anti-freeze; and the second that this tremendous efficiency at removing and storing carbohydrates from the blood will often leave Gatherers in a state of hypoglycemia. Thus they suffer on two accounts, the first is that the energy sources are stored instead of burnt, resulting in weight gain; the second that they do not even have the reward of having consumed these nutrients, since they are removed so efficiently from the blood stream that their brain and muscle tissue fail to get their fair share. Thus they need to eat more, but the same results ensue.

In reality, the best thing Gatherers can do for their dietary health is to eat enough food. However while Gatherers need to consume enough food, it also has to be the right kind of food. They must learn not simply how to cut calories, but also which specific foods do the healing – and the GenoType 2 Gatherers diet and GenoType supplements will help them do just that.

GenoType 3 The Teacher 

Strong, sinewy, and stable, with great chemical synchronicity and stamina, the Teacher is built for longevity – given the right diet and lifestyle. This is the genotype of balance, blessed with a tremendous capacity for growth and fulfillment.

Gathering up his wood shavings the Teacher walked over to the waste pile that archeologists call a ‘midden’ and threw them on it. But something here looked very odd. The top of the pile was covered with tiny white and green sprouts, many still sporting the opened seed case on their newborn leaves. He knew that sometimes this happened on manure piles, but there were no animals kept in the longhouse. Then he remembered those bitter tasting vetch seeds he had tried to eat a few days ago…

Sometime around 12,000 years ago, communities began to develop in the Middle East that displayed new human technologies that marked yet another great leap forward in human consciousness. Eventually labeled as the Neolithic (“New Stone Age”) era and most famous for the revolution in agricultural technology, in reality it was first and foremost a revolution in the human mindset, initiated by the rise of new beliefs, shared rituals and symbolisms.

Although most likely an ‘Out of Africa’ adaptation, Teacher seems to have functioned optimally in a marshy or wetland environment, such as one would encounter in grassy wetlands in inland northern Asia or between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers of Mesopotamia, the Coastal salt marshes associated with the river estuaries of Europe and Africa. In any of these cases, fish, crustaceans and mollusks are traditionally widely available and easily procurable. By the late Mesolithic Period the Teacher worldview was most likely centered upon the scavenging for shoreline creatures and fishing. In this food-rich bioterrain exposure to pestilence would have been a constant fact of life. The exhaustion of these resources or a rising population would have placed severe stress on these societies.

By 8000-7000 BCE the Neolithic Revolution was widespread in Asia. Asian rice began to come under extensive cultivation in the Yangtze valley of China, having originated around the foothills of the Himalayas. The first agriculturalists were strictly subsistence. Food was grown for personal and family use with very little available for trade. Since these societies were shifting from a diet high in animal protein to one based more on plant protein, it seemed particularly counterintuitive when studies showed that the nutritional standards of Neolithic people were often inferior to that of hunter gatherers and their life expectancy was probably shorter. Many anthropologists think that the Biblical story of the expulsion from the Garden of Eden was actually a metaphor for the pain and suffering from society’s conversion from hunter-gathering to the beginnings of food domestication.

If so, it made the Teacher a first-class adapter and one tough buzzard.

The quality of life of these early Neolithic peoples would have also taken a major turn for the better as what has since been termed the “Secondary Products Revolution” kicked in and animals began to be seen not just as a supply of meat, but also a source of wool, milk and traction energy to pull plows and carts. Widespread net and spear fishing would also soon reap major new rewards. The going would be tough, but Teacher was just tough enough to stick it out.

These psychic ties gradually led to the beginnings of social orders and hierarchies. There is evidence for the first time of a control of labor and conflicts characteristic of tribal groups, often headed by charismatic chieftains. The hunter-gatherer way of life was being replaced with the domestication of crops and animals, which enabled people to live more sedentary lives. A settled population permits year-round observation of the growing cycle, and hunter-gatherers are keen observers of the environmental conditions optimal for specific plant products. These would have been what archeologists call Neolithic Founder Crops—the first known domesticated plants in the world. These primary foodstuffs were flax, emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, lentils, peas, chick peas, bitter vetch and broad beans.

The Teacher carries an impressive wisdom of the body. Long ago, Teacher GenoTypes incorporated rich and abundant sources of protein in combination with rapid adoption of simple but effective agricultural technologies, and went on to develop a reasonably flexible worldview.

Physical Profile

Teacher GenoTypes are very, very tough, sinewy folks. Although not often tall or excessively muscular, they can often do the work of two or three people, since they have a marvelous synchronicity between their kinetic, chemical energy and their electric, nervous energy.

Generally they are ectomorphs or meso-ectomorphs, possessing a low body fat percentage, small bone size, a high metabolism, and a wiry physique. A characteristic of the Teacher is clearly discernable tendons and ligaments underneath the skin, a sign of flexibility and strength. Teachers tend to be smaller to average height, with torsos and legs of about equal length

Clear signs of Teacher GenoType include the combinations of blonde hair and brown eyes or black hair and the epicanthic eye fold in Europeans. Incisor shoveling in Africans and Caucasians is another sign of Teacher GenoType. The nose is typically balanced to slightly wide. Interestingly, slight epicanthic folds can often be seen in even many non-Asian Teacher GenoTypes, especially from the more north western parts of Europe. The epicanthic fold may be an evolutionary defense against both the extreme cold as well as the extreme light that occurs in the Eurasian arctic and north. It has also been suggested that the fold provides some protection against dust in areas of desert such as that found in the deserts of northern China and Mongolia as well as parts of Africa. Our common ancestor probably had the epicanthic fold since it has been suggested that the fold provides some protection against dust in areas of desert such that found in parts of Africa. At some point modern Africans and Europeans lost the epicanthic fold, but it was maintained by Asians probably as a defense against both the extreme cold as well as the extreme light that occurs in the Eurasian arctic and north. Interestingly, the marker that often is used by the common mane to identify someone from Asia may well be a relic from Africa.

Straight hair is another typical attribute of Teacher, and may represent very early adaptations to the cooling of the climate that occurred at about the same time as the disappearance of Neanderthal.

Lower leg length and upper leg length tend to be relatively balanced in the Teacher GenoType, but the trunk is usually longer than the total leg length. Teacher tends to be small boned, with a smaller frame size, although this may not be true of Africans and Northern Europeans. Teacher somatotypes are typically balanced, with few extreme versions of any somatotype, more typically Teacher is an equal mix of endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic types.

A characteristic of Teacher is the ability to clearly discern tendons and ligaments underneath the skin, which is almost never seen with Gatherer GenoType. This seems to result in Teacher having a tremendous amount of lever-like strength which gives these people such a physical capacity for hard work. Abraham Lincoln, a clear sign that Teacher is not a short GenoType (he had a glandular problem called acromegaly), could extend a full-sized wood axe by the end of its handle parallel to the ground for any length of time, to the constant amazement of his friends, who made him demonstrate this feat again and again.

The Teacher jaw structure is usually ‘not round’, meaning that the gonial angle can range from squarish to a more balanced shape. Teacher is relatively well balanced when it comes to androgens and estrogens and their lower leg extremity space is usually what would be expected for the gender of the subject.

Teacher is relatively well balanced when it comes to androgens and estrogens, but asymmetrical with regards to left and right medial planes: Their index and ring finger ratios (D2:D4 ratio) are usually asymmetrical as per left and right sides. Excessively longer ring fingers on both hands in men or index fingers in women indicate that an increased tendency towards developing cancers of the reproductive systems (prostate, ovary, breast, etc.) should be considered.

In Teacher, the relative size of protruding body parts increases with temperature. This translates into what anthropologists call Allen’s Rule: people and animals in hot climates tend to have longer limbs than those in cold climates. For example, the people of East Africa are tall, slender, with long arms and legs, while the Inuit or Eskimos of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia have short, stocky bodies with short arms and legs. Asian Teachers can be surprisingly long-legged, especially with optimum pre and post-natal nutrition.

Bergman’s Rule dovetails into this: A smaller body has more surface area per body weight, so it sheds heat more efficiently by sweat. Average body size increases in cold climates, decreases in hot climates; big bodies hold heat better than small ones. This is also quite true of Teacher.

Most Teachers are PROP ‘tasters’ or ‘super tasters’ and usually have an ‘A antigen’ blood type (blood types A1, A2, A1b, A2B).

Although encountered almost everywhere (with the noticeable exception of Central and South America) the A gene is a European, and to a certain extent Central Asian gene. Within the confines of Europe, in combination with the gene for blood type B, it splits the continent into a Western aspect (high frequency of A, low frequency of B) and Eastern aspect (high frequency of B, low frequency of A). The people in the “High A Zone” speak Indo-European languages other than Slavonic.

High concentrations of A are found in the Anatolian highlands of Turkey, and to a slightly lesser degree, the surrounding Fertile Crescent area of the Middle East. These areas are consider by some to be the birthplace of what would become the Neolithic, or agriculture; and though it would be extreme to link a single gene with the enormous effects on the human race that have resulted from the domestication of plants and animals, the physiological effects on the digestive tract that are linked to blood type A indicate that is was most certainly linked with the a series of multi-gene adaptations to grasses and grains.

These areas were hotbeds of early agricultural development, developing strains of cereals and other grasses such as emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley; pulses such as peas, lentils and chickpeas and fibers such as flax. Looking at many of the physiological characteristics of the digestive tract known to associate with type A, it appears that many of the immunological necessities involved in being able to digest and metabolize these early grains (in reality cultivated grasses) were impressed upon the A phenotype, since this the digestive tract this blood group tends to temper the antigenicity of many grains. This has the effect of producing a form of Genetic Drift: Their greater tolerance of often highly antigenic grains would have produced an “immune sparing” effect in blood type A Teacher, with the dividend being invested in more efficient controls of inflammation and better barrier defenses.

There is a very high incidence of AB blood in sub-continental Indian Teachers, again probably the result of the genetic intermingling of steppe-dwelling Nomad horsemen with the more agrarian, settled local stock.

Teachers often have a significant number of whorl type fingerprints, a useful indicator of future cancer risks, especially for women. Research has shown that the presence of six or more whorl fingerprint patterns is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, with a statistical significant no different from having a positive mammogram. That’s pretty dramatic! In type A Teachers, a whorl count greater than 6 should be considered a wake-up call for a pro-active cancer prevention program.

Their Rhesus (Rh) blood group is interesting. They are almost always Rh-positive, and a little further detective work shows that they almost always have the ‘ancient’ form of the Rh positive blood group (CDE).

Common wisdom would seem to imply that men wander around much more than women, exploring, burning and pillaging and whatnot; but the genetic reality seems to be quite the opposite. Matter of fact when geneticists compared the mitochondrial data with the Y-chromosome data it seems that women have migrated from one continent to another about eight times more frequently than men. This may be the result of women leaving their own families and joining their husbands, or by polygyny, men fathering children by multiple female partners.

Geneticists typically can’t do very much with single mutations, and lucky for them they don’t often have to since nature often works in bigger chunks of markers called haplotypes. The word haplotype is a combination of the phrase haploid genotype, which in layman’s terms means “double genetic stuff”. It’ double because, remember, you have two complete sets of genes; one from mom and the other from dad. When they did their little disco dance at the moment of your creation, the parts fused together, deciding then and there which of the rivals for your attention (alleles) would go on to be top dog.

Haplotypes are simply a chunk of alleles at different places along the same chromosome that are inherited as a unit, sort of like if you went to a clothing store, bought a blue sweater, and wound up being convinced by a very good salesperson that the sweater would look great with this pair of plaid pants.

The Rh blood type system was complex. Now I will explain why. We all inherit a set of three Rhesus (Rh) genes from each parent as part of a haplotype. You may have heard of them or even had them told to you when you got blood typed at a donation center: They’re called the c, d, e, C, D and E genes and when the smoke clears after conception, they’re a haplotype.

As with all genetic-speak, upper case means a dominant gene and lower case means a recessive one, but here is where it gets interesting. Unlike eye color, where we could conceive of a single allele bossing the other around, like Ali versus Frazier in the “Thrilla in Manila”, with Rh blood groups it’s the relationship of two gene chunks, each of three alleles; more like the Jets versus the Sharks in West Side Story. You get a chunk of three alleles from mom and they rumble with the three Rh alleles from dad, however instead of calling them a gang, or ‘youth group’ we call them haplotypes.

To finish the story of the Rh groups, if moms gave you the Rh haplotype cDe and dad gave you the cdd haplotype, you’d be Rh positive. Actually any capital letter will make you positive, but a capital D will make you especially positive. Which is why some folks describe Rh earlier as ‘big D’ and ‘little D.’ Those GenoType Explorer Basques? Why, 50% of them got nothing but lower case letters (cde/cde).

A common problem for male African Teachers is ‘fauvism’ (a type of anemia) though it is of the less severe form that seen with Mediterranean folks. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme found on red blood cells that is critical to maintaining proper levels of the anti-oxidant glutathione in its bioactive ‘reduced’ form. Reduced glutathione acts as a scavenger for dangerous oxidative metabolites in the cell. Many drugs and a few foods can induce this damage to the red blood cells, which often is severe enough to cause anemia. Components in lava beans (vicine and convicine) which can induce severe hemolytic (destructive) anemia in people with the G6PD deficiency. Deficiency of G6PD is one of the most common enzyme defects in humans, affecting at least 300 million people worldwide.

Teachers often have polymorphisms of the cytochrome p450 detoxification system. The first thing you need to know is that the name cytochrome P450 has no relevancy whatsoever. It was coined in the early 1960’s to describe an unknown pigment in cells which when bound with carbon monoxide, absorbed light at the 450nm wavelength and the name has stuck ever since. The P450 system is a giant superfamily of enzymes that now number well over 400 genes, with 60 in us humans alone. With all those genes, there needed to be some sort of order developed, so in 1987 a system was developed whereby the symbol CYP followed by numbers and letters detailing the gene and its individual qualities.

In general the Teacher worldview is an effective and accurate predictive response to most aspects of the modern environment. However, many of the more nefarious aspects of modern life, in particular the use of drugs such as nicotine, caffeine and recreational pharmaceuticals will pose an even more significant threat to Teacher than perhaps might otherwise be appreciated. Teachers tend to have rather low levels of enzymes coded by the CYP2E1 gene which metabolize many chemicals, including drugs and many low-molecular-weight carcinogens. This enzyme is also of interest because it is stimulated by alcohol and may play a role in liver injury induced by chemicals such as chloroform, vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

The enzyme is primarily found in the liver, and the level of enzyme varies markedly between individuals. Teachers may well be drawn to alcoholic beverages as a way of increasing this enzyme, as alcoholics have twice as much CYP2E1 activity as compared to nonalcoholics. This may be especially true of Teachers who are also non-secretors.

Ancestry and Variation 

A fairly ubiquitous GenoType, the Teacher is found in just about every racial and ethnic group, although it is especially common in East and South Asians and Western Europeans, which implies that it is probably not much of a marker for the modern day racial and ethnic categories. Teacher is also found equally in both men and women. The ancestral DNA haplogroups for Teacher in general are those types that are descended from macrohaplogroups associated with the ‘Out of Africa’ spread of Neolithic technologies.

Teacher is:

  • Commonly Seen: North Eastern, South Eastern Asians, New World Mixes
  • Frequently Seen: North Western, Western Europeans
  • Often Seen: South Eastern African

Y-Chromosome DNA Analysis

Although not a predominantly African GenoType, some aspects of Teacher genodynamics may be seen in some of the Bantu descendants who carry the marker for Haplogroup E3a. Many Teacher genotypes are descended from the macrohaplogroup F, although most no longer carry F, but rather one of its myriad descendants, especially the M9 mutation which marks Haplogroup K and its descendants, many of which form the mass of Teacher GenoType: haplogroup O in East Asians and R1b in West Europeans. Haplogroup O and its variants (O1, O2, O3) appear to be adaptations to rice farming, whereas R1b is considered a marker of Cro-Magnon migration into Europe in the time before the last glacier.

Haplogroup O3 is a subset of haplogroup O arising about 10,000 years ago from an ancestral male who lived in China. This haplogroup appears in over 50% of all modern Chinese men, and is not found outside East Asia. The widespread success of haplogroup O3 is conjectured to be closely associated with the sudden agricultural boom associated with rice farming. Individuals who are haplogroup O3 are descended from China’s first rice farmers.

DNA Mitochondrial Chromosome Analysis

Many non-European Teachers are descended from the rather rare R haplogroup R, Haplogroup R is a direct ancestor to the very large B haplogroup, arising in Asia some 50,000 years before present and is found throughout modern Asia and the New World.

Haplogroup R is believed to have occurred somewhere in North West Asia between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago. The most important subgroup of haplogroup R is R1, which is is very common throughout Europe and western Eurasia. Its distribution is believed to be associated with the re-settlement of Eurasia following the last glacial maximum. The main subgroups of R1 are R1a and R1b, which pretty much break down into an East and West description of things.

The other lineage traceable to R, and hence back to N, is Haplogroup JT and its descendant T. Although apparently originating in Eastern Europe via the Middle East, haplogroup T has migrated westward, to the point that it is now found in about 10% of all Western Europeans. Like YDNA haplogroup O, T is a Neolithic, agriculturalist marker shared by many Warrior GenoTypes as well.

SNPS that may be of special interest to Mu include the genes that regulate homocysteine metabolism and the production of methionine. These include:

  • MTHFR (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase): Polymorphisms have a role in susceptibility to certain cancers and cardiovascular problems (through its role in regulating homocysteine)
  • MTR (5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferases): MTR encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the final step in methionine biosynthesis, a critical aspect of DNA methylation.
  • MS-MTRR (5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase) This gene produces enzymes which are involved in the activity of the enzyme methionine synthase, which catalyzes the production of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is an essential amino acid required for protein synthesis and for DNA fidelity.

Metabolic Profile

Teacher GenoTypes are very, very tough, sinewy folks. Although not often tall or excessively muscular, they can often do the work of two or three people, since they have a marvelous synchronicity between their kinetic, chemical energy and their electric, nervous energy. Usually when one fatigues, the other takes over, and indeed a useful way for Teacher to relax is to simply alternate between these energy systems.

Because of the inherent tolerance of the Teacher immune system, their digestive tract is often host to a wide and sometimes bizarre arrangement of microbial life. Normally this is not a problem, and may well even be a slight benefit; but the Teacher should always have a ‘low overgrowth’ component to their food selection strategies. In general most simple sugars and carbohydrates should be minimized, as their breakdown products will in short time produce an explosive microbial overgrowth in the lower intestines. Extreme forms of microbial social engineering—such as antibiotics—almost always cause major disruption of the Teacher digestive tract unless modulated with extra short chain fatty acids, soluble fiber and probiotics. A sure sign of the Teacher is a blood type A individual with whorl type fingerprints and high breath hydrogen test readings.

In his book Food Is Your Best Medicine Bieler describes a version of the Teacher GenoType as a ‘Thyroid Type’ characterized by a slim build and an inability to gain weight, restlessness, rapid movements, fine features, and an overactive nervous system. Of the traditional classifications systems, the Chinese yin/yang classification of ‘Yin-Water’ is closest to the Teacher type: Blunt, passionate, confident, fearless, excellent stamina, ambitious, robust, and authoritarian. Yin-Water types also dislike most cold things and are quite averse to bathing in cold water.

Stress Profile 

Their tolerance of the physical world, and also to life in general, gives Teachers great insight into the nature of existence—which to them is simply the sum total of all matter in motion—and provides the Teacher GenoType an insightful, supernatural bent. However the Teacher is not antiscientific; rather, that it identified and aligned with natural processes and cosmology long before there was a science and probably will continue to do so long after it as well.

The Teacher worldview is an effective and accurate predictive response to most aspects of the modern environment. Their biological tolerance is often reflected in their personalities. They have a centered, calm manner. However, many of the more nefarious aspects of modern life, in particular the use of drugs such as nicotine, caffeine and recreational pharmaceuticals will pose an even more significant threat to the Teacher than perhaps might otherwise be appreciated.

In general, Teachers have the souls of an artist and are happy and healthy as long as there are ample avenues for creative expression in their lives. They are great at meta-analysis, the ability to evaluate numerous types of data and synthesize its essence or gestalt.

Aging Profile 

Because it is such a tolerant GenoType Teachers are not all that inflammatory-prone and in general seem to be less allergic. Teachers tend to age well, and often reach significantly advanced years. But this doesn’t happen automatically. The key for Teachers is to seek balance in everything—whether it be diet, work schedules, sleep-wake cycles, or methods of exercise. Despite often reaching advanced age, a significant number of Teachers can experience major health problems in early middle age, such as cancers and circulatory problems.

Allowing the Teacher to reach a healthy old age is as simple as preventing methyl groups from getting knocked off their DNA molecules from stress, toxins and sickness, and replacing them with new methyl groups if they do. This process, called methylation, is critical to the proper health and aging of the Teacher GenoType. A lack of proper methylation turns Teacher DNA into the genetic version of that joke circulating around the office cubicles; a photostat of a photostat repeated so many times that the graphics and text are barely readable.

In Ayurveda a case could be made for some of the more overt aspects of Teacher GenoType fitting the constitutional type called Vata. Vata types are highly imaginative and quick to learn and grasp new knowledge. However they tend to respond to stress with fear, worry, and anxiety, especially when out of balance. Physically Vata types are slender, chests are flat and their veins and muscle tendons are visible.

Immune Profile 

The thymus and bone marrow loom large in the proper balance of the Teacher GenoType. Once dismissed as non-essential organ, it is now known to play a important role in the early development of the immune system, being the primary site of T cell maturation. By puberty, our thymus atrophies, gradually shrinking in size and function. For Teacher, hydrotherapy, particularly the bathing in cold spring water, has a provocative effect upon the thymus and immune system, probably due to receptors in the skin which are activated by sudden changes in temperature. Dry brushing and lymph drainage are all useful in stimulating the thymus and bone marrow through the skin. By increasing circulation in the body, hydrotherapy increases circulation of white blood cells, which stimulates the immune system.

Having an altruistic worldview may be an admirable quality, especially when it comes to migration and having to adapt to new flora and fauna, but not when it is expressed at the expense of one’s own well-being. The Teacher who has exhausted his or her immune system with overwork, sleep deprivation, stress or poor diets, will have trouble fending off chronic infections. They become easy prey for the latest bacteria making the rounds in their offices or schools. Teacher children suffer from chronic ear and respiratory infections, and they often appear sickly.

In general, the Teacher’s immune system is rather slow to activate, particularly against bacteria and parasites. This has its benefits, since the Immune system does not spin its wheels hunting down and destroying things that it could just as well have gotten along with, and this trait was critical to allowing the early Teachers to migrate throughout the world. However, the tolerant Teacher immune system can easily over-identify with the external world, lowering its defenses against microbes, harmful foods and aberrant cells. Poor Immune surveillance means vulnerability to infections, as well as a higher than average risk for many common cancers.

The tolerant Teacher immune system can easily over-identify with the external world, lowering its defenses against microbes, harmful foods and aberrant cells. Poor Immune surveillance means vulnerability to infections, as well as a higher than average risk for many common cancers. This often occurs in Teachers because tumor cells often turn-off genes that are supposed to keep them in check. These ‘jail-keeper’ genes are called tumor-suppressor genes and they are supposed to prevent cancer genes from activating. Often in Teachers, the first thing cancer genes do is figure out a way to turn off the suppressor genes. At that point the inmates are running the prison. Fortunately with the Teacher GenoType diet, you can put those suppressor genes back to work for you.

Like the Hunter, the Teacher metabolism can turn catabolic. This is often the result of unbalanced ubiquitinylation, a type of cellular elimination system. This is accomplished inside the cell by a small molecule called ubiquitin, so named because it is ubiquitous (found everywhere) in the cell. Ubiquitin is now known to be involved in several other cellular processes as well, including quality control protein synthesis, membrane signaling, control of the cell reproductive cycle, X chromosome inactivation in men and the maintenance of chromosome structure. Unbalanced ubiquitinylation can cause problems with the Teacher’s cell signaling mechanisms (surface receptors) and influence tumor suppressor activity. As with Hunter, this often interferes with proper removal of mutant and damaged proteins and growth modulators. While many people today often feel the need for colonic irrigation to ‘clean out’ their system, in Teachers it is their cells, not their colons, which need the colonic.

Lack of self-identification, or perhaps over identification of one self in the external world, poses difficulties for GenoTypes with altruisticworld viewss. Altruism as an unselfish concern for the welfare of others is fine enough, but to consider others as more important than oneself is degrading and demeaning to the self. Extending one’s own worldview to humans, many of whom already subscribe to a code of conduct that rewards altruistic behavior is certainly praiseworthy. Lowering one’s threshold of suspicion toward microbes, harmful foods and aberrant cells is another thing altogether. That is a problem for the modern day worldview of the Teacher GenoType: they can blend into the world so good they sometimes lose sight of themselves.

Adult Teacher GenoTypes will often report that a sibling or parent has developed cancer, and there is often quite a bit of cancer in the family lineage. In westernized countries, Teacher is especially prone to cardiovascular disease as well.

Functional Aesthetic 

As it says in the Bible, ‘The sins of the father will be visited on the sons.’

However, this is only partially true.

The improvements of the father (or more likely, the mother) will also be visited upon the offspring as well. Teacher derives great benefit from many of the plant based anti-oxidants that are of the so-called flavonoid class and not surprisingly a lot of these have made it into the traditional diet in areas with high concentrations of Teachers. These include many natural compounds which are though to exert epigenetic effects due to structural changes that they make to the three dimensional structure of DNA. This is done by changing the function histones, proteins that act as spools for DNA to wrap itself around. Although Teacher may want to do yoga stretching and Chi Gong breathing to achieve greater relaxation, their DNA, if anything, would like very much to stay coiled up and tightly wrapped. Compressed DNA tends to be quiet DNA and Teacher likes quiet DNA.

With the right diet and lifestyle changes, the results of following the GT3 Teacher diet and lifestyle recommendations are nothing short of miraculous. Once the Teacher embarks on a program of dietary and lifestyle changes, the results are immediate. Their recovery powers are quite remarkable.

GenoType 4 The Explorer 

Muscular and adventurous, the Explorer is a biological problem solver, with an impressive ability to adapt to environmental changes, and a better than average capacity for gene repair. The Explorer’s vulnerability to hormonal imbalances and chemical sensitivities can be overcome with a balanced diet and lifestyle.

In genetics it is almost become an almost religious belief that information flows in a downward direction: From DNA to RNA, which determines the amino acid sequence; then to the ribosomes for the assembly of the amino acids into proteins and finally climaxing with the proteins assuming a 3-D origami shape and morphing into a myriad of different enzymes, which go on to catalyze life itself.

To assume anything different would be the equivalent of driving in the oncoming lane of a superhighway and expecting to get somewhere. The Central Dogma was elegant, it was logical, and it worked. However, sometimes karma runs over dogma. One of the problems with The Central Dogma was that it appears awfully slow and inflexible given what we know about the changeable ability of the environment. If the only way that organisms can react and adapt to a changeable environment is through random mutations and survival of the fittest, you are asking a lot to assume that the environment is just going to sit on their hands while we wait until a random mutation occurs. There had to be some other mechanism that allowed for adaptation to the environment in a much timelier manner.

One of the first geneticists to actively question The Central Dogma was the British biologist Conrad Hal Waddington, who thought of GenoType as a walk through an ‘Epigenetic Landscape’. To visualize this landscape, think of your genes on their way to creating your physical body as glass marbles rolling down a mountainside. In the beginning the marble has many different options, however as it proceeds down the side of the mountain, certain decisions cannot be reversed. The mountain has lower hills, valleys, and basins, and with every choice the marble comes closer to a final resting place, but has fewer and fewer options. Eventually the marble comes to rest at some low point, and the journey ends. He described the genes as becoming ‘canalized’ as they moved down the mountain. If we think of the canals of Venice, the analogy works even better; our gondola floats from one canal into another and then another. Each choice leaves it fewer options than before especially if the canals are narrow and you can’t turn the boat around. And, since gondolas need water, we can’t just pick it up and put plunk it into another canal.

I like to think of Explorer as a GenoType that spent a lot of times running down the sides of that mountain in the Epigenetic Landscape. Unlike the marble that could only roll downwards, Explorer sped a lot of time circling while he tried to figure out what the next move should be. Not that he was a procrastinator. He just had a lot on his mind.

Although it may sound like a cliché, the phrase ‘think outside of the box’ really does apply to these folks. Perhaps it’s because Explorers are modern day descendants of ‘glacial refugees’ who survived by finding their way through the rapidly moving ice flows of the Last Glacial Maximum 12,000 years ago. Or perhaps it is just the way that they are wired out of the womb.

Explorer is a predominantly Mesolithic GenoType, and reached its current worldview at a point just before the Last Glacial Maximum, about 15,000 years ago, after which it scattered to various points of refuge. It is almost always found in Caucasians, and principally in Western Europe, North Africa and the Caucuses Mountains. Always the visionary, Explorer probably had a critical vanguard role in adapting to the new Neolithic technologies as they penetrated across the Eurasia steppes and into Europe.

The early adoption of herding type animal husbandry, perhaps one of the simplest of these technologies, especially in the arboreal forests and verdant foothills of the inter glacial period was a key terraforming influence on the Explorer GenoType. The genetic memory of this persists in the mindset of the present day Explorer in the form of an almost spiritual, kindred relationship with animals of all sorts. Explorer is one those special types of people who can have a hawk perched on one shoulder while cradling a field mouse in the opposite arm and have both put aside their natural predator-prey relationship; at least for the moment. When you hear about someone who has taught their English bulldog to skateboard, it’s almost always an Explorer GenoType.

Many of the nutrigenomic profiles available today test for polymorphisms (the SNPs, or ‘snips’) in certain genes that have been linked to disturbances in body function and which may be amenable to diet and lifestyle changes. Three of the common SNPs of interest for Explorer GenoType are variations in the genes for glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1). Genetic variations in these genes can change an individual’s susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. These genes play a critical role in the detoxification and elimination of man-made or xenobiotic compounds from the body.

Physical Profile

The unique metabolic profile of the Explorer is manifested in very distinct physical characteristics. They are typically mesomorphs, possessing a low to medium body fat percentage, a high metabolism, and a large amount of muscle mass and muscle size. They can be rather large-boned, and the men tend to have asymmetrical, chiseled, craggy faces. Their trunk length is usually longer than their total leg length and their upper legs are usually longer than their lower.

Explorers tend towards asymmetry and often have different fingerprint patterns on their left and right index finger, one often being that rather uncommon radial loop pattern. Another asymmetry often found in Explorers is that their finger lengths tend to be backwards for their gender –men often having a longer index finger on one or both hands, and women vice versa.

A lot of left-handers are Explorers, as are people with Rh negative blood type and, although almost any ABO blood type can be an Explorer, ‘Non-secretors’ also are more common. The Explorer GenoType is largely a GenoType of blood groups A and O, although numbers of type B individuals with African ancestry will GenoType as Explorer as well as some northern Europeans, principally female. A common hallmark of Explorer is the interweaving of A and O blood types in the maternal lineage, with many Explorer GenoTypes having mothers who are type A blood, but who are children of mothers who were type O blood. This intergenerational A-O weaving gives Explorer its unique patterning of epigenetic silencing and activation. Other blood groups of interest that often signal the Explorer GenoType are the Lewis Double Negative and Duffy Null Allele in Africans. The MN blood grouping system and the A2 subtype do not seem to factor significantly in this GenoType.

The Explorer somatotype is typically mesomorphic to meso-ectomorphic. It is a moderately common GenoType in Caucasians, found in some Africans and other mixed groups, but is not often seen in Asians. They can be rather large boned, and Explorer men tend to have a somewhat asymmetrical, chiseled, almost craggy look to their faces; what anthropologists might call the ‘Borreby,’ ‘Tronder’ or ‘Brünn’ craniofacial types. Explorer tends to have an elongated torso relative to leg length. Their upper leg length to lower leg length ratio often appears balanced, although a especially mesomorphic Explorer will often have a slightly shorter lower leg length. Explorer is often brown eyed and dark haired; although it might also be possible that some of the lighter haired, brown eyed Lappish peoples may carry the GenoType world view as well. A common characteristic seen in many Caucasian and African Explorer GenoTypes is the presence of the Carabelli’s cusp on the first molar, a feature not common in other hunter-herder types.

Explorer fingerprint dermatoglyphics are interesting. One characteristic of Explorer that is quite common is a difference of finger print patterns on the index fingers of both hands. Common index finger combinations in the Explorer GenoType often involve an ulnar loop on the index finger of one hand contrasted with a radial loop or arch on the other. This is almost a sure sign that the prenatal relationship with the placenta was oxygen deprived and as a consequence, acidic. If they take the time to do a careful job of things, many Explorer GenoTypes will discover that their AB ridge count is lower than average and that there is often a discrepancy between left and right palms.

Like Hunter, Explorer has a reactive, opportunistic worldview, and is in general zero-negative; i.e. having the types of genes and blood groups that are characterized by the ‘missing’ state. A good example of this is the Rhesus negative blood type, which is found in higher concentrations in Explorer. Many though certainly not all Explorer GenoTypes have Rhesus (Rh) negative blood or have an extensive Rhesus negative maternal parentage. Almost all Explorer GenoTypes are PROP tasters, and quite a few are actually super-tasters, sometimes complaining that they can taste the testing strips hours after its administration.

Explorer can often have variations called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in several of the genes that are involved in detoxification. These include the genes that code for a family of glutathione S-transferase enzymes, a family of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a broad range of xenobiotics and carcinogens. These include: the glutathione transferase polymorphisms (GSTM-1, GSTT-1, GSTP-1).

Stress Profile

Explorer has a very mystical, animistic bent. Yet while we might normally associate these tendencies with a more introverted nature, with Explorer, this is not the case. Rather, their deep seated appreciation for the flux and complexities in Nature give them tremendous power in group situations, as they better than most will almost always find the note which is the fundamental and creates a choral structure out of a cacophony. This, in addition to their great capacity for abstract thinking, marks the Explorer GenoType as natural leaders and motivators: A sort of human fugue, if you would, uniquely capable of weave sonic textures in such a way that the same note structure assumes a different melody depending on when and here you chose begin listening to it.

Metabolic Profile

Explorers are very often medical enigmas. They can be challenging to diagnose, since nothing apparent or obvious presents itself as a problem. Physically, they may appear to be in good health, but will complain of a sudden loss of energy, or a sudden inability to tolerate a certain food, supplement or drug. Explorer women often suffer from chronic yeast infections or heavy periods. Blood tests often reveal anemia, or other blood disorders.

Explorers often have problems with the liver or gall bladder. This can sometimes manifest as intolerance to fats, or sudden breakouts on the skin. Migraines are not uncommon in Explorers.

Caffeine sensitivity is a hallmark of Explorers because they are almost always what geneticists call ‘Slow Acetylators’– a fancy way of saying drugs spend a long time in their livers, going round and round, when they should just get processed and eliminated. Like a man who shakes his fist at the bicycle in the road that just missed hitting him –and totally ignores the bus heading his way, the liver of the Explorer GenoType will often overreact to small levels of toxins, to the point that it lets larger amounts of toxins pass by without doing anything about them.

Explorer can have problems with certain antioxidants necessary for detoxification. They often lack adequate levels of in an enzyme G6PD (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) found on red blood cells that is critical to maintaining proper levels of the anti-oxidant glutathione in its active form. Glutathione acts as a scavenger for dangerous oxidative metabolites in the cell. Many drugs and a few foods can induce this damage to the red blood cells, which often is severe enough to cause anemia. Fava beans contain vicine and convicine, which can induce severe destructive anemia in people with the G6PD deficiency. This condition, which is quite common in certain ethnic groups, is called fauvism.

Many Explorer GenoTypes are also slow acetylators. Slow acetylators respond poorly to some drugs and tend to show more side effects because the unprocessed chemical remains at high levels in the blood. This is because there are two versions of gene called N-acetyltransferase (NAT), which adds a small molecule, called an acetyl group, to drugs as they pass through the liver or intestine. This small molecule does a few neat things; it helps some drugs become effective, detoxifies some cancer-causing substances, such as those found in tobacco smoke or even some of the carcinogenic amines that result from grilling meat. There are several alternate versions of the NAT genes, polymorphisms that are typically called ‘fast’, ‘medium’, or ‘slow’ acetylators. The highest frequency of Explorer slow acetylators is found in the Middle East, one of the first regions where agriculture originated 10,000 years ago, and these frequencies decrease toward Western Europe, North Africa, and India, three regions where agriculture was subsequently diffused from the Fertile Crescent.

Explorer can also have difficulties clearing foreign or man-made chemicals from the body, often as a result of lower levels of activity of the p450 system of enzymes. The P450 families CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 appeared to have evolved as a means of detoxifying foreign chemicals (xenobiotics) encountered in the environment and diet. A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in the body, but which is not normally produced or expected to be there. For example, virtually all man-made chemicals are xenobiotic. Principal xenobiotics include drugs, carcinogens and various compounds that have been introduced into the environment by artificial means, such as pesticides, fertilizers and hydrocarbons.

Aging Profile 

A common aphorism in the military is ‘Learn right in the beginning, do it right forever. Learn it wrong in the beginning, spend the rest of your life learning to do it right.’ An Explorer with proper epigenetic programming will work very well and live a long and rewarding life. An epigenetically compromised Explorer GenoType will spend the rest of their lives trying to strike some sort of balance between ever shifting opposing forces. In the case of blood it could manifest as chronic anemia suddenly replaced with a lymphoma, or an iron storage disease suddenly complicated by a rapid drop in platelets. A long time ago when the sole goal was to live long enough to pass on ones’ own genes to their offspring these types of gyrations may have had a fitness advantage, perhaps with regard to holding bloodborne parasites in check. However, they hold little currency today. In the case of the liver and metabolism it could involve their immune system so fixating on small amounts of one particular toxin that it ignores larger amounts of other toxins and lets these pass unmolested.

Explorers who maintain a detoxifying diet that also nourishes the blood and bone marrow will have few health problems and usually will have very little trouble attaining a healthy weight. If you are an Explorer you can modify the genes that cause poor detoxification in your own lifetime — but even better, you can take steps to change the forecast for generations to come. With the right diet and lifestyle for your GenoType, you can be caretakers of both the young and the old. Perhaps like Simone, you may be surprised to find out that food sensitivities and toxicity are best treated by the proper foods for one’s body, not just avoiding the wrong ones.

Explorers often enjoy greater longevity than the other GenoTypes. Many of the genes we typically find in Explorers, such as the Rh negative blood type, are common in areas of the world where people seem to live ‘forever’ —such as the Basque provinces of Spain and the Caucasus Mountains of Asia. Explorers can benefit greatly from the GenoType Diet and should expect to lead long and healthy lives if they follow the recommendations in this book.

One wonderful thing about Explorer is that as a GenoType, they make a wonderful photocopy machine. Perhaps this is the result of their higher capacity for gene repair, or the fact that their activation and silencing patterning is so stable, but if you are looking to make a copy of a gene, Explorer is your man. Give them enough dietary methyl group donors, and watch them go. Explorer bears a striking similarity in many ways to the characterization, or dosha, seen in classic Ayurveda called the pitta, especially the mental attributes and the need for balance.

Explorer GenoTypes seem to have a good balance between proper gene repair and the ability to keep one’s own risk of malignancy at bay. This is always a matter of balance, since the very telomerase enzymes that re-elongate and repair genes are often misused by cancer cells in an attempt to achieve immortality. Yet Explorer seems to accomplish this genetic tightrope walk relatively well. They seem to not only age very well, they also don’t appear to come down with a lot of the more common cancers either. Not for nothing do the major genes that determine Explorer GenoType find their greatest concentration in areas of the world with legendary accounts of longevity.

A properly balanced Explorer will expostulate and complain constantly of their day-to-day health issues, all the while being in constant demand to provide funeral eulogies for their less long-lived friends and relatives.

Immune Profile 

Explorer types like to avoid bloodshed, especially their own, since they tend to have problems keeping their blood adequately supplied with proper levels of blood building nutrients. They can often be left handed, with an ‘aura’ about them that often results in electro-chemical disturbances in the nervous system such as epilepsy, but other Explorer GenoTypes have their fair share of autistic tendencies, hyperactivity issues, and in extreme cases, schizophrenia and bi-polarity can result. One of the interesting things about Explorer is that their blood changes viscosity with their moods. This phenomenon, called rheology, probably occurs as a result of changes to blood clotting factors, which are often occur in far greater concentrations in Explorer GenoTypes, even when otherwise normal and healthy. Explorer GenoTypes from the Mediterranean area of Europe or the areas around Indian and Pakistan are often carriers of the gene for thalassemia (a type of anemia), which may have started out as a protective adaptation to infection by the malaria parasite.

The liver and spleen hold great significance for Explorer. Together they contribute to the health and persistence of all the cellular substances of the blood. The spleen in particular, is an important organ of balance to the Explorer. If it is too immunologically overcharged it will overreact and remove red blood cells too aggressively. Located under the left side of the rib cage, this fascinating organ has two types of tissue; red pulp and white pulp. Red pulp functions much like the labyrinth in the myth of Theseus and Minotaur. Throughout its convoluted corridors scavenger cells lay in wait. As red blood cells age and become senescent their surface appearance begins to become more spherical until finally they are engulfed by the scavenger cells and destroyed.

Explorers often have sluggish bone marrow function and struggle to keep up their white blood cell counts. This GenoType is prone to many types of anemia, such as those that result from inadequate levels of folic acid, B12 and iron and other types of anemia that result from bone marrow suppression or low levels of an enzyme called G6PD. G6PD is critical to the body because it enables the production of a critical antioxidant called glutathione. In addition to powerful detoxification effects in the liver, glutathione protects red blood cells against damage caused by certain drugs and foods.

Probably as a consequence, or maybe a testament, of their survivability as the really only true hunter-gatherers, Explorers tend to be spooked by most microbial toxins, such as endotoxins from bacterial and mycotoxins from fungi. This was probably at one time a conserved trait that had adaptability advantages, since not every animal that went down thru the Explorer digestive tract was fresh caught or killed. An interesting aspect of the Explorer is an an apparent polymorphism with what is known as ‘Schwartzmann’s Phenonomena’, an almost obsessive-compulsive disorder of the liver in which the detoxification mechanisms fixate on a small initial ‘primer’ dose of a toxin, and then let subsequent, larer amounts pass completely unheeded.

Explorers often have trouble clearing foreign or man-made chemicals from their blood. This clearing process is called acetylation. Efficient acetylation helps drugs become more effective, and detoxifies cancer-causing substances. GT4 Explorers have problems detoxifying drugs, carcinogens, and various compounds that have been introduced into the environment by artificial means, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and hydrocarbons. Because of these issues, Explorers can be quite chemically sensitive, and often react negatively to the ‘typical doses’ of drugs, antibiotics, and even vitamins and minerals. When using these medicines they should always start with the lowest doses and gradually work their way upward.

Explorers often have polymorphisms of the cytochrome p450 detoxification system. The first thing you need to know is that the name cytochrome P450 has no relevancy whatsoever. It was coined in the early 1960’s to describe an unknown pigment in cells which when bound with carbon monoxide, absorbed light at the 450nm wavelength and the name has stuck ever since. The P450 system is a giant superfamily of enzymes that now number well over 400 genes, with 60 in us humans alone. With all those genes, there needed to be some sort of order developed, so in 1987 a system was developed whereby the symbol CYP followed by numbers and letters detailing the gene and its individual qualities.

The P450 families CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 appeared to have evolved as a means of detoxifying foreign chemicals encountered in the environment and diet.P450 enzymes have three basic functions and most of members fall within one or the other. These include certain aspects of our internal metabolism and the production of steroid hormones. The third, and the one almost everyone is interested in these days, the metabolism of foreign substances, or xenobiotics.

Are you sensitive to medications? Does caffeine keep you up all night? Until recently physicians could not account for these unexpected variations in patient response to administered therapeutic agents. Now we know that these differences are due to the genetics of individualized detoxification.

Explorers often have variants in the CYP1 family. These enzymes are involved in the metabolic activation of many pro carcinogens and environmental toxins such as dioxin (Agent Orange). The two major versions are CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. CYP1A1 is found in the lungs, placenta, and lymphocytes whereas CYP1A2 is primarily in the liver. CYP1A1 metabolically activates many compounds found in cigarette smoke. Both are involved in the metabolic breakdown of caffeine, and the rate of caffeine clearance is a useful way to determine their activity. In postmenopausal women, East Asians had higher levels of CYP1A activity when compared with Caucasians and Jewish women had the lowest activity of all. Because of genetic variations in CYP1A1 about one-tenth of the population may be at greater risk for development of certain chemically induced cancers. The levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activity are therefore considered to be important determinants of our individual response to many potentially toxic chemicals.

Functional Aesthetic 

Always the paradox, Explorer is one of the very few GenoTypes, which appear to have arrived at an environmental endpoint that is actually superior to the one for which there were predicated. A lot of this may be due to the complexities of the relationship between the developing Explorer GenoType and the placental interface. Although not programmed for metabolic thriftiness like the Gatherer GenoType, the developing Explorer fetus had a relationship with the placenta that almost approximates with a modern statistician might call game theory: The need to anticipate and out-guess your opponent. In the case of Explorer the opponent is the placenta itself, a device existing between the sustenance of the mother and the demands of the fetus.

When properly configured through the always tricky medium of correctly selecting of one’s parents, the placenta exerts a wildly trophic, anabolic effect on Explorer, especially with regard to components that are very sensitive to a stable development, such as the tiny capillaries that are part of the blood supply network, and the interconnectivity of the hemispheres of the brain. However, in some instances it would almost appear that someone forgot to tell the placenta that it is not star of the show, and it begins to act in a rather selfish many, especially with regard to sharing one of its more precious commodities: oxygen. At that point Explorer may well be headed towards a future full of difficulties.

A further consequence of this low oxygen environment often results in many Explorer GenoTypes being ambidextrous or being left hand dominant. GenoType Explorer tends to have a considerable amount of Type I or ‘juvenile’ diabetes in their family lineage as well as personal health history. However, Explorer does not have a particularly thrifty metabolism, so the more common type II or adult onset diabetes is actually less common in this GenoType that on average. The same placental hostility that may play a role in Explorer type I diabetic tendencies might also explain their above average occurrences of autism, schizophrenia or epilepsy.

From a biologic worldview, an important concept to grasp about Explorer is best exemplified by the term dyscrasia. It is a medical word of ancient origin, meaning ‘bad mixture’ and was used in ancient Greek medicine to indicate and imbalance of the so-called ‘four humors’ (blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm) and was believed to be the direct cause of all disease. It is still used in medical context for an unspecified disorder of the blood.

One of the more interesting aspects of the Explorer GenoType dyscrasia worldview is the effect that it produces in their reaction norms, the expected way that they should react to challenges from a multi-system standpoint. The Explorer GenoType has an interesting glycol –the universe of all their signaling sugar molecules. Once the Explorer glycol activates, it tends to behave like a diesel engine, which was once explained to me as ‘Not wanting to be turned on, and having endured that insult, next not wanting to be turned off.’

We currently live in an interglacial period, the interval of warmer global average temperatures that separates the ice ages, and if anything our climate seems to be getting warmer. This current interglacial period has lasted for about the last 10,000 years, so we’ve all grown quite accustomed to a warmer and humid climate. However, before that things were quite different. Ice sheets covered northern Europe and Scandinavia. Most of the rest of Europe resembled a grassland-desert, except that it was very cold. Since so much water was locked up in ice, there much more dry land around the North Sea area than there is now: You would not need to take the Channel to get from London to Paris, you could walk it, and a lot of folks did. Most of modern Europe would resemble this largely featureless landscape.

This is the land of GT4, The Explorer. To get here he had to pass through a belt of extreme desert that extended from North Africa almost to the foothills of the Caucuses. From there on he would have encountered an almost endless expanse of dreary tundra, interrupted solely by dense stands of old forest and the headwaters of the Danube, around present day Austria. Yet this tundra was rich with life; herbivore animals love grasslands, and the rich plant life supported large numbers of wandering herds; steppe game such as mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, musk ox, steppe bison, reindeer, and wild horse. Steppe tundra is too dry for forest growth and too wet to be considered a desert, however unlike extreme desert area, steppe tundra has many small rivers, which support stands of willows and other water loving plants.

But always there was the pressure from the north. ‘We fight, get beat, get up and fight again.’ This was how a Revolutionary War general once described his victory strategy. Explorer was like that: He would fight as long as he could; but then, being no fool, he would pack and move south again; a refugee from the eternal ice and cold. Every time he did this, he changed a little bit, becoming increasingly idiosyncratic and unique, but like Waddington’s marble, discovering that you really can’t ever go back home again.

This standup nature, in addition to their great capacity for out-of-the-box thinking, makes Explorer GenoType some of the best natural leaders and motivators. You can see this in a Julius Caesar, a classic Explorer, who almost never responded to a threat or challenge in an expected way. Like Caesar, a lot of Explorers are left handed. And again like Caesar, epilepsy is not an uncommon condition. The early stages of epilepsy are called to as the ‘fugue state.’ This is an altered state of consciousness in which a person may move about purposely and even speak but is not fully aware. Explorer is a human fugue, if you would, best understood in its musical sense; capable of weaving sonic textures in such a way that the same note structure assumes a different melody depending on when and here you chose begin listening to it.

GenoType 5 The Warrior 

Long, lean, and healthy in youth, the Warrior is subject to a bodily rebellion in midlife.With the optimal diet and lifestyle, the Warrior can overcome the quick-aging metabolic genes and experience a second, “silver,” age of health.

Undoubtedly it was a farmer-warrior, possible a Celt or distant ancestor to the ancient Italics who figured out how to combine tin and copper into the much more usable bronze, gradually transitioning from campfire to kiln to a simple type of furnace called a bloomery and somehow along the way figuring out how to convert the far more available iron ore into a much harder tool or weapon, capable of taking and retaining a very sharp edge. Warrior’s distant ancestors are still doing the same thing nowadays. However, now they do it now with computer motherboards and network cables.

A primarily agrarian GenoType, it almost appears counterintuitive to me that Warrior have made some of the finest warriors in history. But then again, farming societies have traditionally made the best warrior cultures; they organize well and have tangible assets and loved ones to defend.

However, we could have named this GenoType ‘War Survivor’ just as easily as ‘Warrior.’

Agrarian warrior societies have sustained tremendous population. For example, in the early history of Rome, the city would see 70% of its young men killed or maimed in a single battle. We would find this population pressure in virtually every Iron Age town and village. The need to replace these men was probably seen as literal civic duty by the mothers and sisters of the city. These offspring had some urgency in their maternal epigenetics; a need for fast fitness above everything else. These sons and brothers may need to again go forth, as part of a great never ending process to defend home and hearth.

The best physical evidence of this rather ruthless culling of the male population over the years is the relatively high degree of genetic ‘sameness’ seen in the y-chromosome (male descended line) ancestral DNA haplogroups of western men: One single haplogroup (R1b) predominates. In southern England, the frequency of R1b is about 70%, and in parts of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, France, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, the frequency of R1b is greater than 90%. This as opposed to the Nomad GenoType who has a much higher incidence of ‘eastern’ haplogroup R1a.

Warrior is a GenoType of the A blood group antigen, although sometimes having blood type AB can get you into the party. Warrior usually has a negative reaction to the testing strips that determine one’s taster status. They can’t taste the chemical (PROP) and are hence non-tasters. However a few Warriors are super-tasters.

This GenoType has wide distribution in Europeans, principally southern and western; Mediterranean Sea; Europe north of the Alps; Northern Europe, Scandinavia; British Isles. Warriors are in common distribution in Africans, both New World and Old World and not unfrequent in New World Hispanic populations. The GenoType is uncommon in Asians, but rates appear to be climbing, as the nutritional value of the average Asian diet improves.

Physical Profile

The arch fingerprint pattern is a hallmark of the Warrior and is often seen on the thumbs and ring fingers. Warrior has more arch patterns than the other GenoTypes, and with the exception of the Teacher, more whorls. Matching the fingerprint patterns on both hands usually shows some asymmetry; a whorl on the ring index finger, opposite an arch on left.

The most significant physical attribute of Warrior is that the shape is elongated. Warriors are ‘egg-heads’ in many ways, including the actual shape of their head. It’s rather longer than it is wider, so that if you looked at them sideways you’d think their heads were enormous. Studies have shown that modern humans have two distinct physical traits that differ from our ancient and medieval ancestors: We are taller and our heads are more elongated. The Warrior usually has both of these traits to some degree. Warriors are often tall and long legged and because of this, can carry a surprising amount of weight on their frames without looking obese. The head will often continue to alter shape significantly from youth, though really from the effects of aging on the muscles of the scalp, neck, jaws and cheek rather than any change in the bone structure. The BMI (Basal Mass Index) tends to rise steadily over time especially if they don’t work out and stay in shape.

Young Warrior has rather high growth factor activity levels (however, not as high as the Hunter) which can give them the long leg lines often seen with the GenoType, and which can go along way to mask the gradual slowdown in metabolism. Female Warriors in particular seem long-legged. As with men it becomes gradually camouflaged by the rearranging of body parts that is going on due to their accelerating aging at midlife. Typically these women are quite fertile early on in life, but they can go on to experience fertility problems rather early in mid-life.

One common tendency of the Warrior is what we might call the ‘unibrow’ or what geneticists call ‘concurrency.’ This makes a rather handy distinction between the Nomad and Warrior which can be of some use to blood type AB individuals: The tendency of the two eyebrows to blend over the nose is found more often in type AB Warriors than in AB Nomads.

Warrior can be a quite sanguine personality, someone who is generally optimistic, rational, and analytical. Facial flushing and other bodily feelings of heat are common traits in the group, and most certainly seen in menopausal women of this GenoType.

Metabolic Profile

Like Gatherer, the other ‘Thrifty GenoType’, Warrior generates a lot of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), essentially one-way burnt sugars stuck to the outside of the cell. Because of this, the GT5 diet emphasizes foods and supplements that can help control this runaway caramelizing of their body. This can have major long term therapeutic benefits for this genotype.

A cooking metaphor may well be useful here. How often do you hear a television chef claim to be ‘caramelizing’ onions? Well, if truth be told, they are not really making caramel out of the food, but rather performing what chemists call a ‘Maillard Reaction’ which is the result of a process called glycation. Glycation occurs when a sugar molecule, such as fructose or glucose, bonds to a protein or fat without the controlling action of an enzyme. Since almost all other end products in the body are the result of enzymes (which are in themselves the result of DNA).

AGEs molecules are just not a good thing. Glycated proteins and their end products (AGEs) produce 50-fold more toxic free radicals than proteins which are not glycated. As a result of this, AGEs exert a slew of very bad effects in the body.

They also are not easy to get rid of. If you have ever tried to remove burnt sugar from a casserole pan, you’ll appreciate just how difficult it is to get rid of these AGEs. They are eliminated from the body only very slowly: The half-life of a glycation end product within the body is about double the average cell life. The results are the common disease of aging: diabetes, artery disease, Alzheimer’s, joint degeneration and whatnot. Fortunately, as we’ll discover, there are measures you can adopt along with The GT5 Diet to help eliminate these AGEs.

A common attribute of the Warrior is drug resistance. P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multi-drug resistance (MDR-1) gene also plays an important role in the bioavailability of a wide variety of drugs, including the cardiac drug digitalis, many antibiotics, certain chemotherapy drugs, and the anti-rejection medicine cyclosporine. A mutation of at a single point in the gene, called a single nucleotide polymorphism or ‘SNP’ causes a significant drop in the production of P-glycoprotein in the intestines which results in higher and sustained levels of drugs in the bloodstream. Give these people a typical dose of a certain drug and it keep working in their bodies much longer. About half of all Indians and Pakistanis and between a third and a fourth of Europeans and Middle Eastern people also have the gene and many of these folks are Explorer GenoTypes.

On the other hand, Africans virtually lack it; the trait is completely absent Ghanaians, found in only 1% of African Americans and 4% of Kenyans. Blood type A is linked with higher levels of P-glycoprotein, which may help explain my observation that Warrior individuals often don’t respond to conventional chemotherapy as well as other blood types.

In the 1940s doctors noticed that some people developed serious side effects from an anti-tuberculosis drug. Much later, doctors realized that these people had a mutations two versions of gene called N-acetyltransferase (NAT), which adds a small molecule, called an acetyl group, to drugs as they pass through the liver or intestine.

This small molecule does a few neat things; it helps some drugs become effective, detoxifies some cancer-causing substances, such as those found in tobacco smoke or even some of the carcinogenic amines that result from grilling meat.

There are several alternate versions of the NAT genes, polymorphisms that are typically called ‘fast’, ‘medium’, or ‘slow’ acetylators.

Slow acetylators (like the Explorer) respond poorly to some drugs and tend to show more side effects because the unprocessed chemical remains at high levels in the blood. It was these slow acetylators who had responded poorly to the anti-tuberculosis drug.

It was traditionally thought that the slow acetylators were the ones with the problems; they did not appear to detoxify drugs and some carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke as rapidly as their “fast’ brethren and were known to have higher rates of certain types of cancer, bladder cancer in particular.

However when it came to detoxifying carcinogens from cooked meats, slow acetylators appear to have much better luck. For example, men who were fast or medium acetylators and who consumed well-done meat had a greater increase in the risk for rectal cancer than men who were slow acetylators. And to add fat to fire, women who were slow acetylators and who used red meat drippings at least once a week had a decreased risk for rectal cancer.The combination of their thrifty epigenetics and the fast acetylator polymorphism also makes the Warrior a prime candidate for adult onset diabetes.

For this reason, red meat is not a great food choice for Warriors—they convert the byproducts found in well-cooked red meat into carcinogens which bind to DNA and cause cancers of the stomach, colon and breast. Meat also makes their arterial Venetian Blinds flap a lot—and soy helps slow it down.

Aging Profile 

Warriors begin to see more and more flesh when they look in the mirror. The neck area becomes thickened, softer and less defined. Warriors with especially wide jaw angles may find their jaw lines gradually receding. BMI and waist-hip ratio rise steadily over time, especially if they have high fat and sugar diets and don’t exercise. Their previously strong, slender bodies begin to sag, and fat accumulates around the waist area. In both men and women, hair thins, and bags appear under their eyes.

The circulatory system is the Achilles’ heel of the Warrior. Programmed for over activity almost from the moment of their conception, the Warrior’s unique cardiovascular system is the source of their health problems; from the tendency to develop hemangioma type ‘Port Wine Stains’ and ‘Angel Kisses’ on their skin in early age, to a tendency in early middle age to flush when they are stressed out, to problems with their blood pressure and heart in later middle age. Although we tend to think of the blood vessels as solid-walled pipes, in really the walls of the blood vessels are much like Venetian Blinds; able to flap open or closed depending on whether certain types of cells need to migrate from the blood into the tissues. A problem with the Warrior circulatory system is that lots of things in the blood cause these Venetian Blinds to flap so fast and frequently that they almost burn. From there they move on to cholesterol attachment, calcium buildup and artery disease. For those die-hards who just have to know everything, the Venetian Blinds are actually lectin-like molecules called selectins.

The Warrior can also have problems controlling the viscosity, or thickness of their blood. This is especially true of Warriors when they are under intense and prolonged stress.

An unhappy trend in later life for many Warriors is a winding down of their bowel function. Stools become more compact, difficult to eliminate, and infrequent. Chronic constipation, cramps, gas and bloating are partially caused by a weakening of the abdominal muscles, and the extra pressure they place on internal organs. Fortunately, these symptoms can be relieved with the right diet and exercise program.

The Warrior is all about youth. They emerge from the womb, strong and healthy, and are beautiful children, with few health problems, and a natural fitness that is the product of enviably efficient metabolisms. Young Warriors have high growth factor activity levels, which give them long legs, with strong, visible tendons and ligaments. Female Warriors are particularly long-legged.

As teenagers, Warriors are usually quite attractive. Warriors have soft, oval faces, but do not carry extra padding under their skin. In fact, although they have ravenous appetites when young, they are often so slim that they are underweight.The men are often ‘beautiful’ in an almost androgynous way while the women exude an alluring quality that is hard to define. Their inquisitive minds and budding youthfulness often show up as an intense vibrancy in their facial features.

It is precisely this ‘early blooming’ that makes Warrior so interesting from an anti-aging perspective.

Warrior starts out in life well enough. As teenagers, they are usually quite fulsome, with the men often being quite handsome in an almost androgynous manner and the women having a great air of physical attractiveness. Much of this is the impression left by the effects of the emerging, inquisitive mind meeting the budding strength of youthfulness—a trait most noticeable in their facial features. Warrior is not typically a strong jawed individual, especially later in life, but in youth the softer, more oval aspects of their nature make a very nice combination with the great levels of metabolic energy supplied by their still youthful genes. This happy time persists throughout adolescence and young adulthood, but as Warrior approaches midlife, these metabolic genes seem to almost stop working. These changes begin imperceptibly at first, but over time, continue on inexorably.

The effects are so insidious that for a long time Warrior reach their late thirties or early forties not recognizing that a change has occurred. They persist with bad habits thought previously to be things they could get away with. The meals grabbed on the run, the late hours, the stress, the burnout; all now seem perched to take their toll. Their earlier ways of living now begin to catch up.

Now their body turns on them. In both men and women, hair thins, bags appear under their eyes. The previously oh-so-desirable physical body now begins to sag along with an increasing waist to hip ratio. Children shown photographs of Warrior when a young adult and exclaim ‘Uncle sure looks different in this picture.’

Down at the chromosome level, Warrior is frittering away, chunk by chunk. The gradual shortening of the end markers on the chromosome called the telomeres. Telomeres are like genes, but they don’t code for any proteins. Actually they are much like the strip of white plastic at the beginning and end of an audio cassette; it doesn’t play music, but allows the tape head to have an empty space to reside in while it sets up to play the beginning of the tape. Telomeres can fray and shorten over time, as chromosomes reproduce with each cell division, and just as if the white plastic leader on the tape cassette got shorter, the tape head begins to start reading more and more into the audio tape, rather than at its beginning.

The Warrior usually has a quick and nimble mind with a tremendous capacity for memory retention. Like the GT3 Teacher, they know how to get to the gist of an issue, the heart of the matter. In early adulthood they are not only charismatic and attractive to the opposite sex, but they are known to be among the most fertile of the GenoTypes.

This happy time for the Warrior persists throughout adolescence and young adulthood, but as they approach midlife, their formerly efficient metabolic genes seem to ‘hit a wall’ and almost stop working. These changes begin imperceptibly at first, but in a relatively short time, the aging process speeds up.

I rarely see Warriors in my clinic before middle age. But as they hit their late thirties, their thrifty epigenetic inheritance starts to kick in and their aging process accelerates. By midlife, Warriors are having trouble losing weight. Their waistlines gradually thicken, accumulating the more destructive belly fat. By their forties they’re usually complaining, ‘I don’t look like myself anymore.’

Immune Profile 

Warrior usually has great immune surveillance. They don’t get sick for long periods of time, and usually when they do, they have better than average rates of recovery. Their powers of assimilation become problematic, actually for some of the prosaic of reasons; their bowel functions typically tend to wind down, stool being more compact, difficult to eliminate, and infrequent. Partially because of the slacking of the abdominal musculature and its extra pressure on the internal organs, the peristaltic movement of the intestine becomes less efficient, which can produce chronic lifetime problems with cramps, gas and bloating.

Warrior metabolizes drugs and toxins fairly efficiently, and this strength does tend to accompany them into the later years of life. This is a good thing, since Warrior can use it to begin the reconquest of their body.

Functional Aesthetic

Warriors are often the offspring of mothers who are themselves thrifty. This thriftiness can often extend back in many generations, and pictures of distant relatives will often portray images of smaller, intense ancestors, who perhaps had scarcity and famine as their own fad diet. It’s this genetic compression that fuels the blast furnace that so characterizes this GenoType’s metabolism in its early years. The distant relatives may have not had it any better as perhaps just different; their levels of physical labor and scarcity managed to slow the process down enough in them. In their modern day descendant there are no such controls. This may be the result of the fetal development experiencing instability caused by changes to the ongoing acid-alkaline balance in the womb.

In 1965 Leonard Hayflick observed that cells dividing in cell culture divided about 50 times before dying. As cells approach this limit, they show more signs of old age. To me it seems like the photocopied joke that gets sent around the office; the more copies that are made, the lower the quality of the reproduction. In humans, the limit is about 52 photocopies, at about which point the DNA has just about run out of telomere space. In Warrior, it’s probably substantially lower. Their body does have a way to repair telomeres, an enzyme not surprisingly called telomerase, but the amount of telomerase activity is severely regulated; high levels have been seen in almost all human tumors.

As Warrior’s chromosomes fritter, it seems to turn sleepy thrifty genes, and as a consequence despite once having a ravenous appetite and struggling to maintain weight, Warrior now sees more and more flesh when they look in the mirror. The neck area becomes thickened, softer and less defined. Warrior with especially wide jaw angles may see the jaw line gradually recede. At this time the dolichocephalic head shape becomes quite prominent.

All the while this is going one Warrior is building a life. Family is raised, fulfillment in other areas of life, such as one’s job or hobby loom larger as physical activity, never needed in the old blast furnace days, is avoided or ignored. The waist line gradually thickens, becoming first a not-unattractive stockiness, but then increasingly lax, flaccid, unbecoming and dangerous.

Don’t fret! Thrifty GenoTypes like the Warrior and the Gatherer produces some of the most striking ‘before and after shots.’ With the optimal diet and lifestyle, the Warrior can overcome the quick-aging metabolic genes and experience a second ‘silver’ age of health.

GenoType 6 The Nomad

A GenoType of extremes, with a great sensitivity to environmental conditions—especially changes in altitude and barometric pressure, the Nomad is vulnerable to neuromuscular and immune problems. Yet a well-conditioned Nomad has the enviable gift of controlling caloric intake and aging gracefully.

A large percentage of the world’s cultures have stories of a Great Flood that devastated earlier civilization. This flood is sent by God or the gods as an act of divine retribution to destroy civilization. Noah and the Ark in Genesis, Matsya in the Hindu Puranas and the Epic of Gilgamesh are among the most familiar versions of these myths, all of which divide prehistory into a pre-flood or Antediluvian and a post-flood world.

Certainly there were major changes to the planetary water table at the end of the last ice age, as melting waters for the rapidly diminishing glaciers would have caused the levels of the seas and oceans to rise about 125-150 feet, deluging and destroying many prior land bridges, such as that between Alaska and Siberia, and isolating many populations. The end of the last ice age was also accompanied by the mother of all volcanic eruptions as the movement of the African plate opened a fault-line under the Mediterranean Sea, creating a string of volcanoes that still exist, such as Vesuvius and Etna. There is some geological evidence suggesting that a massive prehistoric flood occurred around 8000 years ago as the Mediterranean Sea spilled into the present day Black Sea.

Although by this time agriculture had already reached the plains of central Europe, spread by farming people displaced by the flood. It has been suggested that the memories of these displaced survivors was the source of the Great Flood Legends.

The Nomad GenoType is the story of the people who went the other way.

Physical Profile

As on might imagine from a survivor of the Great Floods, Nomad is a very balanced ship of state. It does have a lot of extremes and opposites, especially when it comes to body measurements, but even the extremes are in balance since their ratios and symmetries remain fairly constant, despite the wide differences in height and size. For example, The Nomad torso length is usually equal to their total leg length, and their upper leg usually equals their lower. Biometrically, a large number of short people are Nomads, as are a number of quite tall people as well. This is because the maternal effects in Nomad are not that consistent. If they are epigenetically programmed in high altitude environments, the better gestational oxygen concentrations will result in greater amounts of growth factor and they will tend to be taller; at lower altitudes, or due to a history of epigenetic instability in the family, they will tend instead towards being smallish.

A large percentage of green eyed or red haired people are Nomad GenoType. The overall body proportions are towards muscularity, and even tall Nomad Genotypes look very well-built. Shorter types tend to see the inherent squeamishness of the genotype enhanced a bit more in their bodies with more muscular necks and upper bodies. Most Nomads have broad, balanced facial and nose shapes.

Nomads tend to be large-boned, and their BMI and waist to hip ratios are often higher than average, but this isn’t necessarily an indication of excess fat, but rather muscularity. Nomads are often mesomorphs, possessing a low to medium body fat percentage, medium to large bone size, a medium to high metabolism, and a large amount of muscle mass and muscle size.

Shorter Nomads have lankier builds, with less muscular necks and upper bodies. Most tall Nomads have broad, balanced facial and nose shapes and often have squarish jaws. Shorter Nomads tend to have more even features and rounder jaw lines. Nomad women tend to be taller than average (the original Amazons of classical mythology?) while the men appear to be somewhat shorter than the norm.

The fetal development of the Nomad seems to be heavily influenced by altitude, and this may well be the physical link between this GenoType and the effects of having a blood type with the B antigen (types B and AB). Studies have shown that type the B antigen appears to influence a person’s receptivity to ‘barometric’ type influences, such as age of onset of menses, and body size and shape. This certainly plays out in the In high altitude environments Nomads will often be tall while at lower altitudes they will be shorter. Shorter Nomads are usually more asymmetrical while taller Nomads tend towards a more symmetrical appearance. A common sign of Nomad asymmetrically is a difference in the size of the breasts in women and the testicles in men. Almost all taller Nomads tend to be symmetrical –a sure sign that they enjoyed life in the womb!

The Nomads’ fingerprint dermatoglyphics are often distinctive. They often have an abundance of ulnar loop patterns, and if the total ulnar loop count is higher that 8/10 and there is a history of Alzheimer’s disease in their family line, they might very well benefit from following the suggestions found in the Supplement Section of the Nomad Diet Plan to maintain cognitive and memory skills in later life.

A hallmark of the Nomad, especially the male, is the presence of ‘white lines’ throughout the fingerprint area. Fingerprint patterns are pretty much fixed by the time you’re born (which is why they’re so useful to law enforcement!). What does change, though, is the height of your fingerprint ridges, the texture of your fingers that gives you fingerprints in the first place. Ridge height is dynamic, and it’s often a very strong indicator of what’s going on in your digestive system. Low ridges often indicate disruption in the lining of your intestinal tract or some other type of digestive problem. They could also indicate intolerance to gluten (found in wheat) or sensitivities to lectins (found in grains), as well as suggesting celiac disease (related to gluten intolerance) and ‘leaky gut,’ in which bacteria that belong in your stomach migrate into your intestinal tract as well. By contrast, good ridge height usually indicates a healthy digestive tract. If your fingerprint ridges are worn, you’re likely to see a pattern of white lines among your fingerprints– secondary creases on your fingers that become visible when your ridges are low.

Research dating back to the early 1970s shows a correlation between the appearance of white lines and the incidence of celiac disease. Typically, the number of white lines increases with age as gut integrity continues to deteriorate. In many cases, these white lines begin to vanish with the maintenance of a gluten-free diet. Some researchers even believe that white lines are a useful indicator of a person’s response to diet therapy, although complete improvement of the fingerprints might take as long as two years. Celiac type sensitivity is more the domain of the Hunter GenoType; in the case of the Nomad, I suspect that the gut problems which are signaled by the white lines is probably more of a sensitivity of the Nomad to many of the type B specific lectins in the diet, such as those found in corn and chicken.

Metabolic Profile

You might say that Nomad is the ‘great communicator.’ This is not just a psychological characteristic, but one that infuses every aspect of their physiology. Their uncanny ability to control nitric oxide activity is at work with their ability to ‘think’ or visualize their way to better health. Nomads are the patients who get dramatic healing results from meditation and mental exercises. The ultimate example of a mind-body connection.

Overall, Nomads have excellent metabolic capacity and in a state of proper health and balance are not prone to obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. They usually have normal hormone function, tend to have little problems with stress, and sleep restfully

Nomads present a mixed dietary picture, and it requires a little extra work to get the balance right. They tend to display certain sensitivities, especially to proteins called lectins, which are present in many foods. Some Nomads are also sensitive to gluten, as evidenced by white lines on their fingerprints. These variations make the Nomad Diet more idiosyncratic than most.

Nomads are one of the rare genotypes genetically adapted to fermented dairy products in the diet, although there are some Nomads who are lactose intolerant. This adaptation by herding and milking societies allowed people to continue consumption of abundant dairy foods throughout their lives. A sure sign that a Nomad has had herding in their genetic history is the presence of incisor shoveling, a grooving of the back surface of the upper font teeth. Another sign of adaptation to milking societies is the Nomad’s tendency to have smaller teeth.

Aging Profile 

Loss of proper nitric oxide control can interfere with healthy aging for Nomads. This ability must be sustained by diet and lifestyle: a breakdown of this important Nomad function is almost always accompanied by problems with the immune system, circulatory flow and brain function as they age.

Nomads have a tendency to develop slow-growing neurodegenerative diseases, triggered by viral infections in youth that don’t show up until much later in life. They seem to have a higher than average rate of autoimmune diseases like lupus, multiple sclerosis and ALS (‘Lou Gehrig’s Disease’).

The liver and spleen can be problem areas for the Nomad, and therefore this GenoType has more than its fair share of inflammatory liver disease, hepatitis and cirrhosis. Because the blood type B antigen (shared by all Nomads) is in large part the sugar galactose –and galactose is one of the more common sugars lining the bile ducts of the liver– Nomads can trap a lot of bugs and other junk in their livers.

Immune Profile 

Like just about every other aspect of the Nomad, their immune system is a study in extremes. They were early herders, and this allowed for their rapid and almost continuous migration and exposed them to widely varying climates, flora and fauna. This may be the reason for the Nomad’s overly tolerant immune system. Unlike the GT4 Teacher, who is more prone to bacterial overgrowth, the Nomad is more likely to struggle with low grade, chronic viral infections, many of which can linger for life. For example, the Nomad immune system usually has a tough time fending off the hepatitis virus.

If their nitric oxide production is imbalanced their immune system will be sluggish when it comes to attacking and clearing invading pathogens. A sure sign of this in the Nomad is a crushing, numbing fatigue.

Yet in some Nomads the immune scenario will be, if anything, overactive. If this is the case, the cause is almost always an excess of activity of the so-called ‘killer cells’ of the immune system. When this is the case the Nomad can suffer from auto-immune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis. This scenario is especially common in Nomads of Asian ancestry or Nomads who have ‘white lines’ throughout their fingerprint patterns. There are not very many Nomad GenoTypes of African ancestry; virtually all type B Africans are Gatherers.

Quite a few Nomads suffer from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and the cause and cure of this, as well as most of Nomad’s myriad health problems boils down to a tiny molecule called nitric oxide.

Made from only one atom each of nitrogen and oxygen, and so ephemeral that it disappears almost as fast as it is made, nitric oxide (usually abbreviated NO) had escaped the attention of medical researchers up until only a few years ago , simply because nobody knew it was there, or how to find it. Yet NO does a slew of incredibly important things in the body. It helps activate cells called macrophages, cells of the immune system that get rid of ‘bad’ debris during injury and illness. As the “garbage men” of the immune system, macrophages use nitric oxide to sweep up parasites, viruses and other infectious rubbish so it can be eliminated.

I hypothesize that a link between the genetic manifestations of the B blood type and an inappropriately abbreviated gene called ASS (argininosuccinate synthetase) which lies very close to the ABO location, the Nomad developed a ‘Receptor Worldview’ by manipulating the recirculation of NO as a quick response mechanism to geographic migration and relocation. This as distinguished from the other Receptor Type, the Teacher, who seemed to develop their tolerance of the environment by a combination of genetic luck (antigenic similarities between the A antigen and many of the microbes of the world) and the ability to tolerate higher levels of microbial overgrowth (‘our barbarians can lick theirs’).

Nomads can struggle with keeping their NO at healthy levels and evenly distributed in their bodies. Often they can have excessive amounts in some areas, and be lacking in others. In some cases there was is shortage of NO in the circulatory system that was what was causing the low blood pressure and perhaps the sensitivity to weather. However, other parts of the body, the immune system and nervous system, for example, clearly appeared starved of this vital nutrient. Fortunately, NO regulation can be enhanced by diet and supplementation.

One of the problems with an over tolerant immune system is called ‘Horror Autotoxicus’ which just means that the immune system has an inherent disinclination to attack itself. Normally this tempering effect is just what the doctor ordered; taken too far and it becomes like the theatre owner who thought he had a ticket-taker at the door, only to later discover that the job was shirked; the job and customers are just walking in and out of your theatre. However, optimizing nitric oxide and your inter-systemic communication will go along way to ameliorate the problem.

Functional Aesthetic 

Many archaeologists believe that the expansion of Neolithic farming peoples from southwest Asia into Europe coincided with the introduction of Indo-European speakers, although I doubt they were one and the same. There is no doubt that ideas travel faster than feet, and the combination is pretty well unstoppable.

More likely Nomad GenoType appears to be a north central spur of the ‘pro to’ Indo-European who first inhabited the Eurasian Steppes at some point in the very early Neolithic period. It may well be that the Warrior GenoType was a more land based variant which migrated southwards and westwards with the recession of the last glacial maximum 12-14,000 years ago, or they may have bifurcated at an earlier time, the Warrior staying put in the Middle East and the Nomad continuing to move eastwards and northwards. This fits the blood group and ancestral DNA data better.

So who were these early Indo-Europeans? We know only a few things about them.

    • They were both pastoral and nomadic, being one of the first groups to domesticate the horse, which also gave them a distinct military advantage over their neighbors. The steppes are not particularly productive from a farming standpoint. Horses also provided meat, milk, clothing and transport.
    • They had discovered the wheel, so they had carts. They worshiped a variety (pantheon) of gods, the preeminent being a ‘sky father’ and ‘earth mother.’
  • It was a heraldic culture, with heroic poetry and song and a male-based kinship system.

Urheimat is a German word loosely translated as ‘Original Homeland’ and is used by linguists to denote place of origin of a language that is the common ancestor of a set of related languages. Although there is some argument as to whether the Indo-European language developed out of India or in Central Europe, the discussion is tainted with a lot of leftover rhetoric and racism.

Some archeologists believe that the westward migration of the Indo-Europeans began in the Anatolian highlands of Turkey and proceeded in peaceful fashion with the westward movement of Neolithic farming technology at about 7000 BC. others subscribe to the ‘Kurgan Hypothesis’, which combined archaeological study of the distinctive Kurgan burial mounds with linguistics to help account for their origin and to trace their migrations into Europe. The Kurgan hypothesis is favored among most Indo-European scholars; both the archeological and genetic data better support the Urheimat of these early Indo-Europeans as being located on the steppes along the north coast of the Black Sea.

No matter what, we are left with one rather handy distinction between the Nomad and Warrior which can be of some use, especially to blood type AB individuals: The tendency of the two eyebrows to blend over the nose, called ‘concurrency’ is found more often in type AB Warriors than in AB Nomads.

As a Nomad GenoType, you possess many natural gifts. And while being ‘special’ can sometimes feel frustrating because you don’t fit neatly into prescribed patterns, if you find your own way, you can be hale, healthy and wise late into life. The GenoType Diet is all about the science of individuality, and Nomads are true individuals.

Read and learn more from the book: Change Your genetic destiny by Peter D’Adamo

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