New Theory about CANCER

A new theory about cancer in contradiction with epigenetics is evolving.

 

A new theory about cancer and the evolution of this diseases was developed by Paul Davies, principal investigator at Arizona State University’s Center for Convergence of Physical Sciences and Cancer Biology. The articles published recently in Phys.org/news are here presented as a topic to collect different comments. You are all invited to participate in this discussion. Who is right, epigenetics or this evolutionary cancer theory?

Original article

With death rates from cancer have remained largely unchanged over the past 60 years, a physicist is trying to shed more light on the disease with a very different theory of its origin that traces cancer back to the dawn of multicellularity more than a billion years ago.

In this month’s special issue of Physics World devoted to the “physics of cancer”, Paul Davies, principal investigator at Arizona State University’s Center for Convergence of Physical Sciences and Cancer Biology, explains his radical new theory.

Davies was brought in to lead the centre in 2009 having almost no experience in  whatsoever. With a background in  and , he was employed to bring fresh, unbiased eyes to the underlying principles of the disease.

He has since raised questions that are rarely asked by oncologists: thinking about why cancer exists at all and what place it holds in the grand story of life on Earth.

His new theory, drawn together with Charles Lineweaver of the Australian National University, suggests that cancer is a throwback to an ancient genetic “sub-routine” where the mechanisms that usually instruct cells when to multiply and die malfunctions, thus forcing the cells to revert back to a default option that was programmed into their ancestors long ago.

“To use a computer analogy, cancer is like Windows defaulting to ‘‘ after suffering an insult of some sort,” Davies writes.

The result of this malfunction is the start of a cascade of events that we identify as cancer – a runaway proliferation of cells that form a tumour, which eventually becomes mobile itself, spreading to other parts of the body and invading and colonizing.

Orthodox explanations suppose that cancer results from an accumulation of random genetic mutations, with the cancer starting from scratch each time it manifests; however, Davies and Lineweaver believe it is caused by a set of genes that have been passed on from our very early ancestors and are “switched on” in the very early stages of an organism’s life as cells differentiate into specialist forms.

The pair suggests that the genes that are involved in the early development of the embryo – and that are silenced, or switched off, thereafter – become inappropriately reactivated in the adult as a result of some sort of trigger or damage, such as chemicals, radiation or inflammation.

“Very roughly, the earlier the embryonic stage, the more basic and ancient will be the genes guiding development, and the more carefully conserved and widely distributed they will be among species,” Davies writes.

Several research teams around the world are currently providing experimental evidence that shows the similarities between the expression of genes in a tumour and an embryo, adding weight to Davies and Lineweaver’s theory.

Davies makes it clear that radical new thinking is needed; however, just like ageing, he states that cancer cannot generally be cured but can be mitigated, which we can only do when we better understand the disease, and its place in the “great sweep of evolutionary history”.

Davies and Lineweaver are both  and  with experience in the field of astrobiology—the search for life beyond Earth. They turned to  only recently, in part because of the creation at Arizona State University of the Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology. The Center is one of twelve established by the National Cancer Institute to encourage physical scientists to lend their insights into tackling cancer.

The new theory challenges the orthodox view that cancer develops anew in each host by a series of chance mutational accidents. Davies and Lineweaver claim that cancer is actually an organized and systematic response to some sort of stress or physical challenge. It might be triggered by a random accident, they say, but thereafter it more or less predictably unfolds.

Their view of cancer is outlined in the article “Exposing cancer’s deep evolutionary roots,” written by Davies. It appears in a special July issue of Physics World devoted to the physics of cancer.

“We envisage cancer as the execution of an ancient program pre-loaded into the genomes of all cells,” says Davies, an Arizona State University Regents Professor. “It is rather like Windows defaulting to ‘safe mode’ after suffering an insult of some sort.” As such, he describes cancer as a throwback to an ancestral phenotype.

The new theory predicts that as cancer progresses through more and more malignant stages, it will express genes that are more deeply conserved among multicellular organisms, and so are in some sense more ancient. Davies and Lineweaver are currently testing this prediction by comparing gene expression data from cancer biopsies with phylogenetic trees going back 1.6 billion years, with the help of Luis Cisneros, a postdoctoral researcher with Arizona State University’s Beyond Center.

But if this is the case, then why hasn’t evolution eliminated the ancient cancer subroutine?

“Because it fulfills absolutely crucial functions during the early stages of embryo development,” Davies explains. “Genes that are active in the embryo and normally dormant thereafter are found to be switched back on in cancer. These same genes are the ‘ancient’ ones, deep in the tree of multicellular life.”

The link with embryo development has been known to cancer biologists for a long time, says Davies, but the significance of this fact is rarely appreciated. If the new theory is correct, researchers should find that the more malignant stages of cancer will re-express genes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis. Davies adds that there is already some evidence for this in several experimental studies, including recent research at Harvard University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

“As cancer progresses through its various stages within a single organism, it should be like running the evolutionary and developmental arrows of time backward at high speed,” says Davies.

This could provide clues to future treatments. For example, when life took the momentous step from single cells to multicellular assemblages, Earth had low levels of oxygen. Sure enough, cancer reverts to an ancient form of metabolism called fermentation, which can supply energy with little need for oxygen, although it requires lots of sugar.

Davies and Lineweaver predict that if cancer cells are saturated with oxygen but deprived of sugar, they will become more stressed than healthy cells, slowing them down or even killing them. ASU’s Center for the Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology, of which Davies is principal investigator, is planning a workshop in November to examine the clinical evidence for this.

“It is clear that some radically new thinking is needed,” Davies states. “Like aging, cancer seems to be a deeply embedded part of the life process. Also like aging, cancer generally cannot be cured but its effects can certainly be mitigated, for example, by delaying onset and extending periods of dormancy. But we will learn to do this effectively only when we better understand , including its place in the great sweep of evolutionary history.”

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-07-theory-uncovers-cancer-deep-evolutionary.html#jCp

 

Medicinal Mushrooms in Practice: Reishi

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Today our series of articles on medicinal mushrooms in which we will discuss their history, applications, strengths and other facinating aspects.

Today we kick the series off with one of the most known medicinal mushrooms in the world, Reishi.

Reishi has occupied a firm place in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries as a valuable mushroom to promote vitality and a long life. In English, its Chinese name means “mushroom of immortality”. Just like its use as a lucky symbol, this clearly shows just how greatly prized this mushroom remains to this day. Many of its traditional effects have since been proven in scientific studies. Its bioactive components include polysaccharides and antioxidants, among others. In particular, the immunomodulating and anti-tumour properties are the main focus of research into this medicinal mushroom.

Applications tested in practice
• General boosting of the immune system
• Allergy therapy
• Promotion of the physical and mental constitution
• Complementary cancer therapy
• Promotion of the heart and circulation
• Natural anti-aging agent
• Help for sleep disorders, nervous unrest and exhaustion
• Complementary therapy for liver disorders

Tried-and-tested combination options with other medicinal mushrooms:
• General boosting of the immune system: Agaricus, Shiitake, Coriolus
• Allergy therapy: Agaricus, Hericium (particularly for bowel cleansing)
• Promotion of the physical and mental constitution: Cordyceps
• Complementary cancer therapy: any mushroom is possible here, depending on the type of tumour
• Support for the heart/circulation: Shiitake, Agaricus, Maitake, Auricularia, Cordyceps
• Natural anti-aging agent: Cordyceps
• Help for sleep disorders, etc.: Hericium, Cordyceps
• Liver disorders: Maitake, Agaricus, Shiitake

Active Components of Reishi
In scientific studies, a variety of substances contained in Reishi have now been analysed, whereby the composition of the individual substances appears to be particularly effective. The substances of outstanding significance include the polysaccharides, which are important to support the immune system, as well as the antioxidants with their cell-protecting effect, and the triterpenes, which have an anti-inflammatory action. Reishi is also exceptionally rich in essential amino acids, which the human organism needs, as well as in various vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

Area of application and active components realtionships

  • Strengthening the immune system and immunomodulation

The immunomodulating properties of Reishi are mainly attributed to polysaccharides, specifically beta-glucans. According to studies, they can improve the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and boost the immune system.² In the process, a special proteoglycan, called GLIS, appears to make a major contribution. GLIS activates immunocytes like the B-lymphocytes and modulates cytokine production, which plays a key role in allergic reactions. In contrast, an increase in certain inflammatory cytokines is considered responsible for the immunological protective function against bacterial infections. A possible change in the balance between Th1 and Th2 helper cells caused by the components of the Reishi fungus could be responsible for efficacy in preventing and treating allergic reactions. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis can also benefit from a Reishi substitution. In a clinical trial, these patients displayed fewer inflammatory markers than the control group – an indication that the use of Reishi can also be considered very promising in general for autoimmune processes.

  • Tumour-inhibiting and preventing effects

The polysaccharides in Reishi exhibit a broad spectrum of anti-tumour effects. They have a proven cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, improve macrophage proliferation and stimulate their activity against tumour cells. The ganodermic acids increase interleukin and interferon distribution, lead to the apoptosis of cancer cells by intervening in mitochondrial functions, and inhibit the formation of DNA and RNA in tumour cells, whereby the cells’ ability to proliferate is dramatically reduced. An anti-androgenic effect due to ganoderol B could explain the successful use of the mushroom for prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Most studies concern the immune-boosting effect of Reishi in cancer patients. These effects can be used to benefit immunological integrity, especially for chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  • Lipid- and cholesterol-reducing action

The oxygenosterols (ganoderols) contained in Reishi inhibit the body’s own cholesterol synthesis by interacting with mevalonic acid. In turn, mevalonic acid represents the precursor to cholesterol. Polysaccharides can also regulate lipid metabolism and prevent the lipid peroxidation of blood fats. This confirms the use of Reishi in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders and metabolic syndrome.

  • Prevention of cardiovascular disorders

Reishi’s ability to protect against arteriosclerosis has long been recognised. In addition to promoting the normalisation of blood fat values and controlling the cholesterol level, the medicinal mushroom also stands out due to its antioxidant properties. This has a positive effect on aging processes, particularly in terms of the heart and blood vessels, but also in general.

Not all Resihi is the same

It is important that the medicinal mushroom product is of an impeccable quality in order for the human organism to be able to benefit from the health-promoting potential of the medicinal mushrooms. Responsible manufacturers like Hawlik enlist accredited, independent labs to monitor the farming of the mushrooms and the various stages of preparation. The lab results should be provided to all interested parties on request.
A further contribution to the best possible product safety is the processing of the raw material into a powder or extract in accordance with the strict quality standards set out in Germany, the observance of which can be documented with a seal. A medicinal mushroom powder produced with what is known as the shell-broken method is considered particularly high quality due to its good bio-availability. This method achieves a particularly fine grain size of 0.125 millimetres, which optimises the intake of the substances contained in the mushroom.
The most important components of the medicinal mushrooms include the polysaccharides from the pure mushroom. High-quality medicinal mushroom extracts are standardised for polysaccharides, whereby a polysaccharide value of approx. 20% – 30% is optimal, as this also corresponds to the natural composition of the mushrooms.

Buy independently controlled organic mushrooms at www.lyranara.com

Carpe Diem.

Integrative Medicine

INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE

What is Integrative medicine? A medicine which obviously “integrates” all necessary tools for diagnosis and treatment on all levels defining the human (or animal) beings. Which are these levels? Well we all know now that these are:

–          Matter

–          Energy

–          Information

–          Spirit

Between all these levels exist interactions and synergies therefore you must treat the “body” as a whole, i.e. matter (herbal, nutrition, water), energy (Electro- or Laser acupuncture, Bio-resonance, Pulsed electromagnetic field) and information (quantum response/radionics, color super tuning).

Information structures the Energy level and the Energy organises the Matter. Information is thus the “cellular number”, Energy is the wave generated when the phone is ringing and Matter is the physical device. Allopathic medicine is dealing only with the matter, while naturopathic, holistic or integrative medicine is acting on all three levels, Matter, Energy and Information. Meditation, Yoga, Shamanism are mostly manifesting on the spiritual level, however they all interact with the other levels.

Healers who dedicated their life to learn and practice Prana, Reiki, TCM, Yoga, Homeopathy, etc. have an extraordinary value but they are quite a few who can be considered valuable experts. We need many of them to spread these techniques, to help humanity, to heal the planet. How and where can we find these EXPERTS to help us?

Well, the new modern integrative medicine is offering naturopaths the best tools to practice, to diagnose and to treat the patients, to prepare the remedies and to give their patients a chance to become an integral part of this process. Let’s have an example: one patient is diagnosed in your practice by using EAV, he is treated using a bio-resonance methodology and is given homeopathic globules to trigger and support the healing process. When he is at home you can instruct him how to use low level light laser to have some meridian points stimulated by himself, or he can have some colour therapy using color pointers; finally you can broadcast to him from your MARS III device those information necessary to assist his healing process. The homeopathic globules you could prepare for him in your own practice based on your diagnosis. To better prepare the body for this healthy balancing, the patient must exercise to relieve stress and this can be done by enjoying video games special designed to minimize or totally shut-down the stress status. A colour therapy would help him as well and even deeper as a stress relief game. Why this? Because in stress the body switches off the whole immune system and goes in the fight-flight modus, growth is stopped, visceral organs are in minimum functional modus, not a suitable status for treatments. An overall integrative medicine treatment is when the body-mind system of your patient triggers and controls the healing process; we transport the patient from his initial disease route to its specific healthy highway. From here the body knows what to do!

We defined a portfolio of devices serving this approach, helping you as a practitioner and your patients to faster achieve your goals. We provide a holistic integrative approach, enhancing the healing chances of your patients and improving your income as a practitioner. Have a look at our devices and let us guide you through this process of modernizing your naturopathic practice.

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