THE ANCIENT-NEW HOPE FOR MANY
Artemisia annua belongs to the family Asteraceae, also known as Qinghao (Chinese), or sweet wormwood, or sweet Annie. Artemisia annua occurs naturally as part of the steppe vegetation in the northern parts of China
It has been introduced into experimental cultivation in India (Singh et al., 1986), Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Madagascar, Malaysia, USA, Brazil, Australia (Tasmania) and in Europe into the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and as far north as Finland (Laughlin et al., 2002).
Artemisia was used 2000 years ago, by Chinese who collected green leaves, added some spring water and let them overnight to extract; in the morning, they drunk the greenish extract and thus cured many diseases. Sometimes they made a kind of tee of it.
Artemisinin is an Artemisia Annua natural product, used as raw material to manufacture other synthetic Artemisinin drugs such as dihydroartemisinin, arteether, artemether and artesunate. Most of these are used as antimalaria drugs.
The main limitation factor in artemisinin production and usage is its low levels in the plant; there are hybrids such as Artemis (a cross between Chinese and Vietnamese clones), that can produce from 1 to 2% Artemisinin on a dry weight basis.
Our view is that the current bottleneck for the feasible production of artemisinin in developing countries is the lack of affordable seeds from high-artemisinin parents and the industrial suppression of this business.
WHO and pharmaceutical industry recommends to use Artemisinin combined therapy (ACT) due the low bioactivity of Artemisinin and the low concentration of Artemisinin in plants; thus, today Artemisinin and its synthetic derivatives such as Artesunate are used for malaria therapy and it is the best treatment known today.
Certainly, by suppressing natural Artemisia extract and recommending synthetic Artemisinin products, the patents can be edited and granted to the giant pharmaceutical establishment.
The not yet answered question remains: How did the Chinese cured so many diseases only with natural Artemisia products and this already thousands of years ago??
Artemisia Annua derivatives
Artemisinin was discovered by Tu Youyou who received a Nobel prize for her discovery
Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone known as Artemisinin. Since Artemisinin was discovered as the active component of Artemisia annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dehydro-artemisinin (DHA), Artemether, Arteether and Artesunate.
Artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations. The flavonoids found in Artemisia Annua green leaves are synergizing with Artemisinin and have shown a variety of biological supportive activities against malaria and cancer. The flavonoids present in Artemisia annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of Artemisinin in the body. Flavonoids have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases or cancer. Thus, Artemisia Annua natural extract are significantly more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria, toxoplasmosis), viral infections (such as HIV, Epstein Barr, Herpes, Hepatitis B or C), Lyme and Cancer than synthetic Artemisia derivatives.
The major problems related to the Artemisinin medical therapy is the Artemisinin low water solubility, low bioactivity (1-2%), its instability due to oxidation of peroxide groups and the low Artemisinin concentration in the Artemisia plant. Today there is a shortage worldwide in Artemisinin, therefore the pharma industry is developing artificial products such as Artesunate.
Until 2015, Artemisinin mechanism of action in destroying cancer cells was not known.
Today the most widely accepted theory is, that Artemisinin molecules are first activated through cleavage of O-O peroxide bond after impact with iron(II) oxide; this leads to the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), that in turn damage susceptible cancer cells proteins, resulting in the death of cancer cells.
Artemisinin & Cancer Therapy
Woerdenbag 2003) first reported the cytotoxicity of Artemisinin in tumor cells. These tumor cells maintain a high concentration of intracellular iron to sustain proliferation and continuous haem production. We know today that tumor cells are richer in iron and transferrin, an iron transporting protein. Thus, natural Artemisinin removes iron out of cancer cells, which cannot proliferate and the generated ROS is killing the cancer cells. What a wonderful natural mechanism embedded in plant for humans to heal so many serious conditions.
Several recent studies show different mechanistic pathways that can selectively induce apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis in tumor cells. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production, which is present at higher level in cancer cells and protects cancer tissue from ROS cytotoxicity, supporting thus cancer growth, invasion of cancer cells in other tissues.
Recent studies revealed in human leukemia cell lines (HL-60) that, Artemisinin endoperoxides induce concentration and time dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial membrane depolarization; thus, cancer cells suffer a selective DNA degradation compared with normal cells. It is known that DNA repair in cancer cells is much more difficult to occur.
Another target is Cell cycle of tumor cells; There is evidence for antiproliferative effects of Artemisinin against murine leukemia by inhibiting the G1 phase of cell cycle, G2 phase arrest and apoptosis.
“Wnts” are a family pf 19 secreted glycoproteins that accumulate in the extracellular matrix to activate pathways in adjacent cells. Due to mutations in the tumor suppressor genes beta-catenin in cytoplasm is increased and activates several transcription factors which are involved in cancer proliferation, cellular invasions and angiogenesis. Especially promising effects were observed in colorectal cancer therapy.
Artemisinin cancer therapy biokinetic
Anti-cancer activity was also found to be associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, which was demonstrated by induction of glucose regulated protein as well as growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene.
Angiogenesis regulators: From RNA expression 30 out of 90 angiogenesis related genes correlate significantly with the cellular response to artemisinin; Fundamental angiogenic regulators encoded by genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, hypoxia inducing factor and some others are down regulated by Artemisinin through ROS leads clearly to repression of tumors.
Artemisinin or Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) promotes BAX translocation to mitochondria with cell depolarization which further leads to cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 gene family is the most prominent regulator for anti- apoptosis, so for cancer proliferation. Artemisinin silences Bcl2, anti-apoptosis regulator, cancer cells die!
Artemisinin mechanism of action
Artemisinin is today best Malaria treatment:
Artemisia Annua pharmacology was studied for treating Malaria being known for hundreds of years to be an excellent killer of Plasmodium pathogen.
When an infected female Anopheles mosquito takes her blood meal, she infects the human host with sporozoites (<200 cells/drop of mosquito saliva are sufficient for infection). These travel, largely through the lymphatic system and minimally through the blood, to hepatocytes. There, most Plasmodium rapidly form hepatic schizonts, but the species shown can also form dormant cells called hypnozoites (which can periodically reactivate, cause a relapsing infection. Hepatic schizonts fill with merozoites, then rupture, releasing them into the blood where they infect erythrocytes. Release of a new wave of merozoites from the hepatic schizonts after successful reduction of erythrocytic stages of the organism below detectable levels is known as recrudescent infection.
Artemisinin appears to work against multiple forms of the parasite, not just schizonts. As artemisinin targets the erythrocytic cycle, they should be most effective at treating acute malaria, which is how they are generally used and where the best support of efficacy exists.
Artemisinin also effectively kills early-stage gametocytes (the form of malaria transmitted from humans to mosquitoes). Therefore, artemisinin may help prevent spread of the parasites from infected humans to uninfected humans.
Artemisinin treats antiviral infections
- Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV): HCMV is a major cause of disease in immune system compromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients; it is also a common cause of inborn infection leading to developmental abnormalities and hearing loss. Actual drugs such as ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir are limited by their high toxicity; Artemisinin suppresses HCMV growth by inhibiting its replication.
- Hepatitis B, C
- Human Herpes, Herpes Simplex
- Epstein Barr (EBV)
- Bovine viral diarrhea
- Lyme disease and coinfections
Artemisinin treats parasitic infections
- Toxoplasma Gondii are protozoan parasitic species causing the diseases know as Toxoplasmosis. Artemisinin acts on TgSERCA and disturbs the calcium homeostasis in Toxoplasma Gondii, which is necessary for protein secretion, motility and invasion into the exit from host cells.
- Artemisinin also inhibits calcium dependent ATPase activity in Trypanosoma Cruzi and Trypanosoma Brucei membranes, suggesting a mode of action via membrane Pumps.
- Artemisinin is active against phylogenetically unrelated parasites such as Schistosoma and Leishmania
- Artemisia Annua is the main and best natural source of Artemisinin.
- Synthetic and semi-synthetic Artemisia derivatives such as Artesunate, Arteether, etc. do not offer consistent and reproducible therapy results because they do not contain all coenzymes, flavonoids and other natural products occurring in natural Artemisinin.
- Artemisinin is one of the most potent and efficacious antimalarial, anti-cancer, anti-viral therapy remedy. (Moore et al., 1995; Efferth et al., 2001).
- Currently, the limited availability of Artemisinin and the lack of real competition among producers of raw Artemisia Annua seem to be the major barriers to scaling-up production and are partially responsible for its high price (World Bank, 2003).
- Maximum bioactivity of Artemisinin is 1-2% due to a low water solubility and penetration at the cellular level.
Our unique Artemisia herbs extract is a worldwide premiere.
- We offer a unique Artemisia herbs mixture extract with a concentration in Artemisinin of more than 25%;
- Our Artemisia herbs extract shows an unbeatable bioactivity of over 99%
- Our extract is the new hope for Cancer, Lyme, Toxoplasmosis, Malaria, HIV, Herpes, Epstein Barr, Hepatitis patients.
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